The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
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Week ending 24 November 2018

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 24 Nov 2018

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Statement by UN Child Rights Experts on Universal Children’s Day

Human Rights – Children

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Statement by UN Child Rights Experts on Universal Children’s Day
Tuesday, 20 November 2018
New York/Geneva – Today, as we celebrate Universal Children’s Day and the 29th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN child rights experts* urge Governments around the world to be united in ensuring priority attention to the realization of the rights of the child and to accelerating efforts for implementation of the Convention, the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history.

“While ratification of the Convention is nearly universal, commitments must be renewed and translated into concrete action to promote their effective enjoyment by every child. Every policy decision has an impact on children entitled to care, support and protection from neglect, abuse and exploitation, and to develop capacities and talents to reach their full potential. The best way to leave no child behind is to put children first to ensure that no child grows up in a world of fear, violence and hopelessness,” said the experts.

The Convention was adopted on 20 November 1989 and much progress has been made in the protection of children’s rights through investment in children, the enactment and enforcement of legislation and public policies, and the establishment of institutions to safeguard children’s rights. The Convention has been reinforced by three Optional Protocols: to prevent and address the involvement of children in armed conflict; to prevent and address the sale of children and their exploitation in prostitution and pornography; and, to enable children to challenge violations of their rights through a communications procedure before the Committee on the Rights of the Child.

“However, more and better work needs to be done in a changing world which presents major challenges compromising the universal realization of children’s rights,” said the experts. “Today, millions of vulnerable children continue to be left behind, including child victims of violence, conflict and sexual exploitation, migrant, refugee and asylum-seeking children, children living in poverty, children with disabilities, and children belonging to indigenous and minority groups.”

“Today, the principles and provisions of the Convention are as relevant as ever and they are a crucial reference for the effective implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals,” said the experts. “For millions of children affected by discrimination, poverty, violence, conflict, sexual exploitation and abuse – for all children left behind – we must transform the continuum of violence, deprivation and discrimination that shapes their lives into a continuum of protection of their fundamental rights.”

“Children are key agents of change and their voices must be heard and their participation ensured to help address the pressing issues that they face,” said the experts. “Efforts by Governments, by non-state actors, by civil society organizations and by individuals must be urgently reinforced to always put children above politics, to safeguard their rights and to create a better world for all.”

“Today, as we head into 2019 and the 30th Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, we remind all Governments of their obligations under the Convention,” said the experts. “Inaction or measures that do not respect the rights and best interests of the child have a negative, long-term impact – not only for the child’s development and well-being – but also on society as a whole.”

“We call upon all states which have not yet done so, to put children first and above politics, by ratifying and effectively implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its three Optional Protocols,” the experts urged. “The world’s children deserve nothing less.”

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Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
:: The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict is now in force in 168 countries. States parties have committed to ban the compulsory recruitment of children under 18 in armed forces and to ensure that those under the age of 18 do not take part in hostilities.

:: The Optional Protocol on the sale children, child prostitution and child pornography provides detailed guidance to States for the prevention, prohibition and criminalization of the sale and all forms of sexual exploitation of children, as well as to fight impunity for those offences within and across borders, ensuring accountability of perpetrators and redress for child victims. The Protocol is in force in 175 States and nearing universal ratification.

:: The Optional Protocol on a Communications Procedure foresees a system of individual and State’s complaints before the Committee on the Rights of the Child to address the violations of children’s rights, as well as a mechanism of inquiry that the Committee can initiate to investigate grave and systematic violations of the rights of child. This protocol has been ratified by 41 states and signed by 51.

*UN Child Rights Experts
:: Renate Winter, Chair of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child
:: Marta Santos Pais, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Violence against Children
:: Virginia Gamba, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict
:: Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material

More on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on the Rights of the Child:
http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRC/Pages/CRCIndex.aspx

Educating Girls and Ending Child marriage : A Priority for Africa — World Bank

Education

Educating Girls and Ending Child marriage : A Priority for Africa
(English) 2018/11/19 :: 70 pages
World Bank Group
Working Paper
PDF: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/268251542653259451/pdf/132200-WP-P168381-PUBLIC-11-20-18-Africa-GE-CM-Conference-Edition2.pdf
Abstract
Despite progress over the last two decades, girls still have on average lower levels of educational attainment than boys in many African countries, especially at the secondary and tertiary levels. Girls dropping out of school are more likely to marry or have children early, before they may be physically and emotionally ready to become wives and mothers. This may affect their own health. It may also affect that of their children since children of mothers younger than 18 face higher risks of dying by age five and being malnourished. They may also do poorly in school. Other risks for girls and women associated with a lack of education as well as child marriage include intimate partner violence and a lack of decision-making ability in the household. Through lower expected earnings in adulthood and higher fertility over their lifetime, a lack of education for girls as well as child marriage lead to higher rates of poverty for households. This is due to both losses in incomes and higher basic needs from larger household sizes. Low educational attainment for girls may also weaken solidarity in communities and reduce women’s participation in society. Lack of education is associated with a lower proclivity to altruistic behaviors, and it curtails women’s voice and agency in the household, at work and in institutions. This report documents the negative impacts of low educational attainment for girls, child marriage, and early childbearing for girls in Africa and some of their associated economic costs. The message is clear: educating girls is not only the right thing to do. It also makes economic and strategic sense for countries to fulfill their development potential.

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PRESS RELEASE
Africa Loses Billions of Dollars Due to Child Marriage, Says New World Bank Report
ACCRA, Ghana, November 20, 2018—Child marriage will cost African countries tens of billions of dollars in lost earnings and human capital, says a new World Bank report launched ahead of the African Union Commission’s second African Girls Summit on Ending Child Marriage taking place in Ghana this week.

According to Educating Girls and Ending Child Marriage: A Priority for Africa report, more than three million (or one third of) girls in Sub-Saharan Africa marry before their 18th birthday each year. Today, the region has the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world. Child brides are much more likely to drop out of school and complete fewer years of education than their peers who marry later. They are also more likely to have children at a young age, which affects their health as well as the education and health of their children.

While many African countries have achieved gender parity in primary education, the report notes that girls lag behind boys at the secondary level. In Sub-Saharan Africa, seven out of 10 girls complete primary education, but only four out of 10 complete lower secondary school.

On average, women who have a secondary education are more likely to work and they earn twice as much as those with no education. Estimates for 12 countries—which account for half of the African continent’s population—suggest that through its impact on girls’ education, child marriage is costing these countries $63 billion in lost earnings and human capital wealth.

“Primary education for girls is simply not sufficient. Girls reap the biggest benefits of education when they are able to complete secondary school, but we know that girls very often don’t stay in school if they marry early,” said Quentin Wodon, Lead Economist at the World Bank and principal author of the report.

Child marriage also leads to high fertility rates and population growth, the report notes. If child marriage were ended today, lower population growth would lead to higher standards of living, especially for the poorest.

The report confirms that keeping girls in school is one of the best ways to avoid child marriage. Each year of secondary education reduces the likelihood of marrying as a child before the age of 18 by five percentage points or more.

The report also documents the impact of child marriage and girls’ education on more than three dozen other development outcomes. For example, child marriage leads to higher risk of intimate partner violence, and lower decision-making in the household. Child marriage also affects the well-being of the children of young mothers, including higher risks of mortality and stunting (malnutrition) for children below the age of five.

Educating girls and promoting gender equality is part of a holistic effort at the World Bank, which includes financing and analytical work to keep girls in school, prevent child marriage, improve access to reproductive health services, and strengthen skills and job opportunities for adolescent girls and young women.

The report was published with support from the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation and the Global Partnership for Education.

Access to Medicines Index 2018

Access to Medicines Index 2018
Access to Medicine Foundation. November 2018 :: 258 pages
Funders: UK Department for International Development; The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
PDF: https://accesstomedicinefoundation.org/media/uploads/downloads/5bf82b990058d_5bf6b5facee2e_Access-to-Medicine-Index-2018.pdf

Executive Summary
Globally, two billion people cannot access the medicines they need, with millions in low- and middle-income countries dying each year from diseases because the vaccines, medicines and diagnostic tests that they need are either unavailable or unaffordable. Pharmaceutical companies control products that can greatly alleviate disease burdens; they also have the expertise to meet the need for new and adapted innovative products; the power to address the affordability of those products through more refined access strategies; and the ability to strengthen supply chains and support healthcare infrastructures. Considering their size, resources, pipelines, portfolios and global reach, these companies have a critical role to play in improving access to medicine.

For more than a decade, the Access to Medicine Foundation has worked to stimulate change within pharmaceutical companies. Every two years, it publishes its Access to Medicine Index, which analyses the top 20 research-based pharmaceutical companies and ranks them according to their efforts to improve access to medicine in developing countries. A total of 69 indicators make up a framework within which company performances relating to 77 diseases, conditions and pathogens in 106 low- and middle-income countries can be compared.

The Index analysis brings out best practices and examples, highlights areas where progress has been made and areas where critical action is required. The Index also acts as a benchmark where companies can compare their own contributions to improving access to medicine with their peers. While companies are held to a single standard, they are different in the way they operate and in their portfolio of investigational and marketed products. The Index is a relative ranking: scores cannot be directly compared between Indices.

The methodology is updated every two years in line with developments in access to medicine
following a wide-ranging multi-stakeholder dialogue. For the first time this year, the Index examines company efforts to increase access to cancer products. Also for the first time, the Index zeroes in on 53 products on the market that it considers particularly critical candidates for company access initiatives and evaluates what companies are doing to facilitate their affordability and supply. These are products that are on patent, first-line therapies and on the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (EML).

This report outlines the key findings and overall ranking analysis of the 2018 Access to Medicine
Index before presenting a detailed analysis of company performances and rankings in each of the seven areas of corporate activity it focuses on. The report concludes with detailed, tailored company report cards that explain each company’ performance, highlight industry-leading practices and company-specific opportunities to improve access to medicine.

KEY FINDINGS
:: Most priority R&D projects are being conducted by five companies: GSK, Johnson & Johnson, Merck KGaA, Novartis and Sanofi. Such concentration is also seen in the industry’s overwhelming focus on five of the 45 priority diseases – malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis– targeting that reflects international donor priorities.

:: Access initiatives for cancer focus on pricing but have limited reach, mainly for small population groups and fewer than five key countries on average. Meanwhile, access planning for cancer products in the pipeline lags far behind that for communicable disease candidate products and plans are less comprehensive.

:: The majority of the 53 key on-patent products have an access initiative attached to them, but these are limited in scope, with pricing schemes being applied in fewer than five countries where greater affordability is a priority. Many of these key products with access initiatives are for diseases prioritised by global health donors or international procurers.

Least Developed Countries Report 2018 – UNCTAD

Development – “Least Developed Countries”

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Least Developed Countries Report 2018
Entrepreneurship for structural transformation: Beyond business as usual
UNCTAD 2018 :: 190 pages
Foreword
Nowhere else in the world is radical economic transformation more urgent than in the least developed countries, which have the challenge of accumulating productive capacities at an unprecedented speed, in the face of the rapid reorientation of global production and digital transformation, to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

At the centre of radical economic change is transformational entrepreneurship. The Least Developed Countries Report 2018: Entrepreneurship for Structural Transformation – Beyond Business as Usual demonstrates how transformational entrepreneurship generates many of the social and economic innovations that underpin sustainable development. Transformational entrepreneurs create new products and business models; they offer dignified employment; their success leads to broader improvements in the quality of life and even bolsters fiscal sustainability. Dynamic entrepreneurs also make a greater contribution to wealth accumulation and distribution.

In the least developed countries, however, underdevelopment and unfavourable forms of participation in global trade constrain the emergence of the dynamic, opportunity-seeking entrepreneurs needed for structural transformation. The dearth of dynamic local entrepreneurship endangers structural transformation and ultimately weakens national ownership and the potential impact of attaining the Sustainable Development Goals in the least developed countries.

The weakness of dynamic entrepreneurship has important implications in the least developed countries, where entrepreneurship policy is often mobilized as an alternative to unemployment and a remedy for structural inequalities. This type of policy is often an imperfect way of fostering high-impact and dynamic entrepreneurship, which requires a distinct and strategic approach and deliberate long-term nurturing that entail coordinated and coherent action and smart policies across a range of relevant policy areas.

The Least Developed Countries Report 2018 presents a compelling case for a structural transformation-centred approach to entrepreneurship policy in the least developed countries. The report underscores entrepreneurship policy based on a fundamental recognition of disparities in the contribution of different types of entrepreneurship to structural transformation and wealth creation. It establishes a more active and proactive stance for the State in steering the emergence of dynamic and transformational local entrepreneurship. Importantly, it calls upon the least developed countries not to overlook the pivotal and complementary role played by large enterprises, alongside medium-sized and smaller enterprises, with a view to the least developed countries formulating deliberate strategies to nurture entrepreneurship that has impact. By encouraging least developed country policymakers to
avoid policies that might undervalue the benefits of entrepreneurship, this report makes an invaluable contribution to least developed country efforts to add value to their implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Mukhisa Kituyi
Secretary-General of UNCTAD

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What are the Least Developed Countries?
UNCTAD/PRESS/IN/2018/008
Geneva, Switzerland, (20 November 2018)
There are 47 countries currently designated by the United Nations as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to which UNCTAD devotes its annual Least Developed Countries Report published today. They are:
Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, the Sudan, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Yemen, Zambia.

This list is reviewed every three years by the Committee for Development Policy, a group of independent experts that reports to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). In reporting to ECOSOC, the committee may recommend countries for addition to, or exclusion from (so-called “graduation” from), the list of LDCs.

The committee used per-capita income, human assets, and economic vulnerability criteria in its most recent review in March 2018 (see box below). For all three criteria, the committee uses different thresholds to identify countries to be added to the category and for countries which will graduate.

A country will qualify to be added if it meets the addition thresholds on all three criteria and does not have a population greater than 75 million. Qualification for addition to the list will effectively lead to LDC status only if the relevant country accepts this status.

A country will typically qualify for graduation from LDC status if it has met graduation thresholds under at least two of the three criteria in at least two consecutive triennial reviews of the list.

However, if the three-year average per-capita gross national income of a least developed country has risen to a level at least double the graduation threshold (i.e., $2,460), and if this performance is considered sustainable, the country will be deemed eligible for graduation regardless of its score under the other two criteria.

The overall graduation landscape following the March 2018 review comprises:
:: Five cases of graduation: Angola, Bhutan, Sao Tome and Principe, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, of which two have a known graduation date: Vanuatu (December 2020) and Angola (February 2021);
:: Two hypothetical graduation cases, subject to a decision by member States: Kiribati and Tuvalu
:: Two cases in which the Committee for Development Policy deferred consideration of the question of graduation: Nepal and Timor-Leste
:: Three cases of pre-eligibility for graduation (and likely full eligibility in 2021): Bangladesh, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar

This means that as of 2018 there were 12 countries eligible or pre-eligible for graduation from LDCs. Adding these 12 qualifying cases to the two countries that have graduated since 2011 (Samoa and Equatorial Guinea) – and considering the addition of South Sudan in 2012 – the overall graduation performance by 2018 amounts to a 29% qualification ratio…

2017 Illicit Trade Report – World Customs Organization (WCO)

2017 Illicit Trade Report
World Customs Organization (WCO)
November 2018 :: 205 pages
PDF: http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/activities-and-programmes/illicit-trade-report/itr_2017_en.pdf?db=web
GENERAL OVERVIEW
Since its inception in 2012, the World Customs Organization’s (WCO) annual Illicit Trade Report
has aimed to contribute to the study of the phenomenon of illicit trade through in-depth analysis of seizure data and case studies voluntarily submitted by Member Customs administrations from around the globe. By quantifying and mapping the situation in six key areas of Customs enforcement (cultural heritage, drugs, environment, intellectual property rights/health and safety, revenue assurance and
security), it is hoped that this Report will provide a better understanding of current cross-border
criminal activities and contribute to information currently available on illicit trade.

The Report is composed of six sections relating to key areas of risks in the context of Customs enforcement:
– Illicit trafficking of stolen or looted cultural objects that include both archaeological objects and works of art;
– Drug trafficking, including cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances subject to drug prohibition laws;
– Environmental risks relating to trafficking of endangered species, hazardous and toxic waste, ozone-depleting substances, and trading of indigenous or protected timber, etc.;
– Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and health and safety risks relating to trade in counterfeit or illicit goods, particularly products which pose a serious threat to health and safety, such as
pharmaceuticals (including veterinary medicines), foodstuffs, toys and sub-standard items (such as electrical components and spare parts);
– Revenue risks, including leakage, through the smuggling of highly taxed goods such as tobacco, alcohol and motor spirits, plus commercial fraud activities such as under-valuation, misuse of origin and preferential duties, misclassification and drawback fraud;
– Security risks, including terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, trafficking of small arms and explosives, and diversion of dual-use goods

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

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WHO statement on latest attacks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Statement
17 November 2018, Geneva
Following deadly attacks on Friday in the town of Beni, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ebola response activities are continuing.

While all WHO, Ministry of Health and partner staff are safe and accounted for, 16 WHO staff were evacuated to Goma for psychological care after their residence was hit by a shell which did not explode.

Ebola response operations were on-going but limited in Beni on Saturday.

Vaccination was suspended and the operations centre was closed, but teams still went out into the communities to follow up on some alerts of potential cases, to meet contacts and ensure they are still well, and to bring sick people to treatment centres. The treatment centers, which are run by partners, remained operational.

The response was not affected in areas outside Beni. On Sunday, all activities have re-launched, including vaccination.

“WHO will continue to work side-by-side with the ministry and our partners to bring this Ebola outbreak to an end,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. “We honour the memory of those who have died battling this outbreak, and deplore the continuing threats on the security of those still working to end it.”

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16: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu
21 November 2018
[Excerpt]
Implementation of ring vaccination protocol
:: Vaccination activities were paused in Beni after the security incidents on 16 November 2018, but continued in Katwa, Butembo, Vuhovi and Kalunguta.
:: As of 19 November 2018, 518 new contacts were vaccinated in 13 rings in affected health zones, bringing the cumulative number of people vaccinated to 32 626. The current stock of vaccine in Beni is 5920 doses.

DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
22 November 2018
[Excerpt]
WHO risk assessment
…As the risk of national and regional spread is very high, it is important for neighbouring provinces and countries to enhance surveillance and preparedness activities. The International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) Emergency Committee has advised that failing to intensify these preparedness and surveillance activities would lead to worsening conditions and further spread. WHO will continue to work with neighbouring countries and partners to ensure that health authorities are alerted and are operationally prepared to respond.

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DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
22 November 2018
[Excerpt]
WHO risk assessment
…As the risk of national and regional spread is very high, it is important for neighbouring provinces and countries to enhance surveillance and preparedness activities. The International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) Emergency Committee has advised that failing to intensify these preparedness and surveillance activities would lead to worsening conditions and further spread. WHO will continue to work with neighbouring countries and partners to ensure that health authorities are alerted and are operationally prepared to respond.

Emergencies to 24 Nov 2018

Emergencies
 
 
POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 20 November2018 [GPEI]
:: The Islamic Advisory Group (IAG) for Polio Eradication concluded its fifth annual meeting in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on 14 November 2018, reaffirming a renewed commitment to continue supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, protecting children against all vaccine-preventable diseases and expanding its mandate to support other health priorities. The full meeting statement is available here.
 
Summary of new viruses this week:
Afghanistan – five wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive environmental samples.
Pakistan – one WPV1 positive environmental sample.
Papua New Guinea – three cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1).
DRC- one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).
Nigeria – two cases of cVDPV2..
Somalia– two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples.

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.
 
WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 24 Nov 2018 ]
Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 16: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  21 November 2018
:: DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   22 November 2018
[See Milestones above for more detail]
 
Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis
:: 330,000 Rohingyas and host community to get cholera vaccine in Cox’s Bazar
SEAR/PR/1702  Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, 17 November 2018
[See Milestones above for more detail]
:: Weekly Situation Report 51 -15 November 2018 pdf, 545kb
 
Myanmar
:: 330,000 Rohingyas and host community to get cholera vaccine in Cox’s Bazar
17 November 2018
[See Milestones above for more detail]

Nigeria – No new announcements identified
Somalia – No new announcements identified
South Sudan – No new announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new announcements identified
Yemen – No new announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 24 Nov 2018 ]
Brazil (in Portugese) – No new announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new announcements identified
Iraq – No new announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new announcements identified
Libya – No new announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new announcements identified
Niger – No new announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new announcements identified
Sudan – No new announcements identified
Ukraine – No new announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new announcements identified
 
 
WHO-AFRO: Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin, Week 46: 10-16 November 2018
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 53 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
:: Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Cholera in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Cholera in Cameroon
:: Humanitarian crisis in Central African Republic
:: Humanitarian crisis in north-east Nigeria.
 
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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 24 Nov 2018 ]
Afghanistan
Chad
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018
Kenya
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Mali
Namibia – viral hepatitis
Peru
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut
Tanzania
 
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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Yemen
:: Yemen Humanitarian Update Covering 7 – 21 November 2018 | Is …

Syrian Arab Republic   No new announcements identified.

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
 
Ethiopia  No new announcements identified.
Somalia  – No new announcements identified.

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“Other Emergencies”
Indonesia: Central Sulawesi Earthquake
:: 18 November 2018  Central Sulawesi Earthquake & Tsunami: Humanitarian Country Team Situation Report #8 (as of 16 November 2018)
 
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The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 17 November 2018

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 17 Nov 2018

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates  [see PDF]The Sentinel_ period ending 20 Oct 2018
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Paris Peace Forum :: 11-13 November 2018 – Macron, Guterres Speeches

Paris Peace Forum
11-13 November 2018
More than 10,000 visitors, 65 Heads of State and Government as well as 10 international organizations leaders were reunited during three days at La Grande Halle de La Villette for the first edition of the Paris Peace Forum to exchange…

Paris Peace Forum – Introductory speech by Mr. Emmanuel Macron, President of the Republic
Paris – 11 November 2018
[As prepared; Editor’s text bolding]
…Of these ceremonies for the centenary of the 1918 Armistice, history will no doubt remember an image: 84 heads of state and government from once warring nations, peacefully reunited in Paris under the Arc de Triomphe. But what remains uncertain for the future is the way that image will be interpreted; will it be the vivid symbol of a lasting peace between nations or, on the contrary, a photograph showing a final moment of unity before the world descends into fresh chaos? And this depends on us alone.

The world in which we live is being weakened by crises which are destabilizing our societies: the economic, environmental and climate crises and the migration challenge.

Weakened by the resurgence of threats which could strike at any moment: terrorism, chemical and nuclear proliferation and cyber crime.

Weakened by the return of grim passions – nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, extremism – which call into question the future our peoples expect.

That’s why we wanted to organize this Paris Peace Forum, which is destined to take place every year and draw together heads of state and government, of course – and I want to thank everyone who’s here and has mobilized –, but also representatives of international organizations, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, voluntary organizations, businesses, foundations, intellectuals, journalists, activists; as you said, chère Trisha, everyone who makes up the world today and can change it.

The aim of the Paris Peace Forum is to bring people together every year to promote practical action so that peace efforts make a little more progress every year. It’s also because of this that I want to welcome the presence of Nadia Murad, the 2018 joint Nobel Peace Prize winner, who in a few moments’ time will be launching a very concrete project to consolidate peace through her foundation for the Sinjar district in northern Iraq. Thank you.

So my dear friends, we’re here today because all those who fell 100 years ago, as Clemenceau said, have rights over us. And this is where our duty lies. A hundred years ago we didn’t succeed in winning the peace, because France and Germany continued to be divided. And from humiliations to crises and the rise of totalitarianism, war broke out again 20 years later. It’s why I was really keen for this Paris Peace Forum to be inaugurated by Chancellor Angela Merkel. Thank you, chère Angela.

And 100 years ago, our predecessors tried building this peace to last; they invented the League of Nations, the first form of international cooperation. But it was shattered by unilateralism in some quarters, by economic and moral crises and by nationalism. That’s why I wanted António Guterres, the United Nations Secretary-General, to be the second speaker to open this Paris Peace Forum. Thank you, cher Antonio, for being here.

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Address to the Paris Peace Forum
United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres
11 November 2018
[Excerpt; Editor’s text bolding]
.
…. Ladies and gentlemen,
As I see it, several elements today have many parallels with both the start of the twentieth century and the 1930s, giving us grounds to fear that an unpredictable chain of events could ensue.

The first element is the 2008 financial crisis.

Let us not forget, the Second World War began 10 years after the 1929 stock market crash.
It’s true that the lesson was learned in 2008.

A great depression was avoided by deploying an unprecedented arsenal of budgetary and monetary instruments to shore up demand and rescue the financial system.

However, although the global economy returned to growth, scores were settled by voters on both sides of the Atlantic in 2016, and more broadly in Europe and elsewhere.

Political revenge against macroeconomic rationale, reflecting the destabilization of the middle classes, the impact of wage stagnation in curtailing social mobility, growing inequalities and people’s indignation at the “treason of the elites”.

The second element is that, in the 1930s, democracies were swept along by a wave of totalitarianism.

We are not in the same situation, but what we are seeing today is the polarization of political life and of society itself, which is leading to a dangerous erosion of fundamental rights and freedoms, democratic principles and the rule of law.

Identity-related prejudice, terrorism and the corruption of information are putting political systems and constitutions to the test.

Previously shored up by multiple strands of community life and culture, they are now being fractured by individualism and the conflation of ethnic, religious and national passions.

Those bitter passions fuelled the nationalist backlashes and anti-Semitism of the 1930s. We must never lose sight of that fact.

Ladies and gentlemen,
A weakening of the democratic spirit of compromise and an indifference to collective rules are twin poisons for multilateralism.

Regrettably, I see several clear signs of their presence today…

30 articles on the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Human Rights
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30 articles on the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
OHCHR
It has been 70 years since world leaders, driven by the desire to prevent another Holocaust, explicitly spelled out the rights everyone on the planet could expect and demand simply because they are human beings. On 9 November 2018, the UN Human Rights Office launched a special series to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the UDHR, which was adopted in Paris on 10 December 1948.
Following an introductory article about the history and continuing significance of this extraordinary landmark document, OHCHR is, for the next 30 days, publishing an article a day to put each of the Declaration’s 30 Articles into perspective. All the articles published so far can be accessed through the links below:
Latest:
Article 8: Right to Remedy

Previously published:
Introductory article
Article 1: We are all born free and equal
Article 2: Freedom from Discrimination
Article 3: Right to Life
Article 4: Freedom from Slavery
Article 5: Freedom from Torture
Article 6: Right to Recognition Before the Law
Article 7: Right to Equality Before the Law

Rohingya: Repatriation

Rohingya: Repatriation
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Bachelet: Returning Rohingya refugees to Myanmar would place them at serious risk of human rights violations
[Editor’s text bolding]
GENEVA (13 November 2018) – UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on Tuesday urged the Government of Bangladesh to halt plans for the repatriation of more than 2,200 Rohingya refugees to Myanmar, warning that the returns would be in violation of international law and put their lives and freedom at serious risk.

The refugees in Cox’s Bazar are the victims of human rights violations committed in the midst of the violence that erupted in August 2017, which led to the flight of more than 725,000 people. Many witnessed the killings of members of their families and the burning down of their homes and villages. Refugees have stated repeatedly that they do not wish to return under current conditions.

The Office also continues to receive reports of ongoing violations of the rights of Rohingya remaining in northern Rakhine, which include allegations of killings, disappearances and arbitrary arrests, as well as widespread restrictions on the rights to freedom of movement, health and education. About 130,000 internally displaced people (IDPs), many of whom are Rohingya, remain in camps in central Rakhine.

Another 5,000 IDPs remain in No Man’s Land between Myanmar and Bangladesh while more than 4,000 are in Aung Mingalar ward in Sittwe, where they are subjected to a wide range of restrictions. Hundreds of thousands of people in other parts of Rakhine also remain deprived of their rights to freedom of movement, to basic services and livelihood – as well as their right to a nationality.

Some of the refugees have threatened suicide if they are forced to repatriate, and two elderly men in Cox’s Bazar have already attempted suicide.

“We are witnessing terror and panic among those Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar who are at imminent risk of being returned to Myanmar against their will,” High Commissioner Bachelet said. “Forcibly expelling or returning refugees and asylum seekers to their home country would be a clear violation of the core legal principle of non-refoulement, which forbids repatriation where there are threats of persecution or serious risks to the life and physical integrity or liberty of the individuals.”

“The human rights violations committed against the Rohingya in Myanmar amount to the worst atrocities, including crimes against humanity and possibly even genocide. With an almost complete lack of accountability – indeed with ongoing violations – returning Rohingya refugees to Myanmar at this point effectively means throwing them back into the cycle of human rights violations that this community has been suffering for decades.”

Bachelet called on the Government of Myanmar to show its seriousness in creating the conditions for return by addressing the root causes of the crisis in Rakhine state, in particular the systematic discrimination against and persecution of Rohingya.

High Commissioner Bachelet appealed to the Government of Bangladesh to ensure scrupulously that any repatriation takes place in line with international standards of voluntariness, safety and dignity, with full transparency, and only when the conditions are right.

“The history of the Rohingya in Myanmar is one filled with repeated episodes of violence, flight and return,” Bachelet said. “We need to speak with one voice to stop this cycle from repeating itself yet again.”

::::::

[UNICEF] Geneva Palais briefing note: Rohingya refugee repatriation and the situation in Rakhine State, Myanmar
Press release
[Editor’s text bolding]
GENEVA, 16 November 2018 – This is a summary of what was said by Christophe Boulierac, UNICEF spokesperson in Geneva – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today’s press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

“This week we have seen widespread reports that Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh may be forcibly repatriated to Myanmar, reports that UNICEF views with the utmost concern, with particular concern at how such a move would affect children.

“Yesterday our colleagues working in Unchiprang camp in Cox’s Bazar – one of the camps targeted for repatriation – witnessed a large demonstration by Rohingya refugees against the plans for repatriation. The camp authorities reinforced the message that while they are ready to repatriate refugees on a voluntary basis, no Rohingya refugees will be forced to return to Myanmar if they do not wish to do so.

“We welcome this move by the Bangladesh government. UNICEF wholly supports the approach of UNHCR in relation to this question. Any repatriation must be voluntary, sustainable, conducted in safety and with dignity. We would take grave exception towards any moves to repatriate children that do not conform to these criteria. Children should not be separated from their parents or guardians. Children should not be exposed to any levels of stress or discomfort during repatriation, nor should any child that is ill be repatriated.

“Unofficial polls conducted by our UNICEF colleagues in the camps have all reached the same conclusion. The overwhelming majority of refugees are unwilling to be repatriated unless their safety can be guaranteed. The consensus is that while conditions in the camps are tough, they remain preferable to the perceived risks of returning to Myanmar. For many, the trauma they witnessed during their exodus from Myanmar at the end of 2017 is still fresh in their minds.

“It is easy to understand their concern. Rohingya children and families who remain in Rakhine State continue to face particular hardship and are in need of humanitarian assistance due to ongoing restrictions on their freedom of movement and limited access to essential services such as health and education.

“Just a few days ago, on 13 November, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that it continues to receive reports of ongoing violations of the rights of Rohingya remaining in northern Rakhine, which include allegations of killings, disappearances and arbitrary arrests, as well as widespread restrictions on the rights to freedom of movement, health and education.

“Many organizations that worked in northern Rakhine State prior to August 2017 have been unable to resume activities to the extent desired or previously held due to restrictions by the Government of Myanmar. UNICEF along with the humanitarian community in Myanmar, continues to call for unhindered access, including simplified access procedures, to enable the timely and predictable delivery of life-saving aid, protection assistance and build confidence among communities.

“So whilst the situation in Myanmar remains incredibly worrying, we also have concerns for Rohingya refugee children in Bangladesh. Education remains high on our list of concerns – particularly for teenagers in the camp. Their plight was outlined by UNICEF in a Child alert released in August this year. We aim to continue our work providing a network of Learning Centres (LCs) and Child Friendly Spaces (CFSs). There are now more than 1100 learning centers run by UNICEF and its partners in the camps reaching 124000 children with education.

“UNICEF calls on the international community to continue working with the governments and civil society of Bangladesh and Myanmar in support of Rohingya children and families, towards longer term solutions to this crisis, based on respect for and protection of the human rights of all Rohingya people.”

Templeton Prize 2018 – King Abdullah II of Jordan

Templeton Prize

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His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan Receives 2018 Templeton Prize at Washington National Cathedral
13 November 2018
King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, who has done more to seek religious harmony within Islam and between Islam and other religions than any other living political leader, was announced today as the 2018 Templeton Prize Laureate.

Known for his grace and humility, the King’s long quest to promote peace-affirming Islam gained momentum in 2004 in the wake of the Iraq war when the fragile unity of Sunni and Shi’a Muslims in the region was at substantial risk. During that period, increasingly vocal rhetoric from marginal Islamic groups threatened to create deeper schisms within the Islamic community. In the face of these challenges, the King launched the breakthrough Amman Message that articulated a clear understanding of the central elements of Islam, and affirmed that terrorism and violence have no place in the religion…

Through these groundbreaking initiatives and many others, King Abdullah II has led a reclamation of Islam’s moderate theological narrative from the distortions of radicalism. But these efforts have come with great personal cost including condemnation and death threats from radical terrorist groups. As a result of Jordan’s key geographical location, his efforts have required extraordinary courage to advance cooperation within Islam and between Islam and other religions.

Purpose
The Templeton Prize honors a living person who has made an exceptional contribution to affirming life’s spiritual dimension, whether through insight, discovery, or practical works. Established in 1972 by the late Sir John Templeton, the Prize aims, in his words, to identify “entrepreneurs of the spirit”—outstanding individuals who have devoted their talents to expanding our vision of human purpose and ultimate reality. The Prize celebrates no particular faith tradition or notion of God, but rather the quest for progress in humanity’s efforts to comprehend the many and diverse manifestations of the Divine.
Award
The Prize is a monetary award in the amount of £1,100,000 sterling.

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Secretary-General Praises Templeton Prize Recipient King Abdullah of Jordan, at Award Ceremony, for Leadership Role in Seeking Religious Harmony
13 November 2018
SG/SM/19343

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo
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15: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu
13 November 2018
[Excerpts]
Case management
ETCs continue to provide therapeutics under the monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions (MEURI) protocol, in collaboration with the MoH and the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) together with supportive care measures. WHO is providing technical clinical expertise on-site and is assisting with the creation of a data safety management board.
New patients continue to be treated in ETCs. As of 11 November 2018, 145 patients have been treated with a therapeutic under the MEURI framework after evaluation by clinical expert committee. All hospitalized patients received food and psychological support…

Implementation of ring vaccination protocol
As of 10 November 2018, 424 new contacts were vaccinated in 13 rings in affected health zones, bringing the cumulative number of people vaccinated to 28,727. Two new vaccination teams were trained in Butembo, with support from Médecins Sans Frontières, and vaccination teams were supervised in Beni, Vuhovi, Mutwanga, Kalunguta and Kyondo. The current stock of vaccine in Beni is 5870 doses.
Preparedness activities for vaccination and therapeutic readiness continue in four high risk neighbouring countries, including arrangement of the necessary supplies, human resources and regulatory approvals. Plans are in place to initiate health worker vaccination activities in Uganda at six priority health facilities starting 8 November 2018…

Conclusion
The EVD outbreak continues to be of grave concern: over the past two weeks the disease has spread to three new health zones around Beni and Butembo, and the number of confirmed cases is increasing. Among the persons affected by the EVD outbreak are pregnant and breastfeeding women, newborn and infants. The response, particularly the case management, is being adapted to these vulnerable groups of the population…

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DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
15 November 2018
[Excerpt]
WHO risk assessment
…This outbreak of EVD is affecting north-eastern provinces of the country, which border Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan. Potential risk factors for transmission of EVD at the national and regional levels include: transportation links between the affected areas, the rest of the country, and neighbouring countries; the internal displacement of populations; and the displacement of Congolese refugees to neighbouring countries. The country is concurrently experiencing other epidemics (e.g. cholera, vaccine-derived poliomyelitis, malaria), and a long-term humanitarian crisis. Additionally, the security situation in North Kivu and Ituri at times limits the implementation of response activities. WHO’s risk assessment for the outbreak is currently very high at the national and regional levels; the global risk level remains low. WHO continues to advise against any restriction of travel to, and trade with, the Democratic Republic of the Congo…

Emergencies

Emergencies
 
POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 30 October 2018 [GPEI]
:: World Polio Day activities garnered global attention. Partners, donors, and popular public figures around the world brought attention to the cause of polio and the efforts to eradicate polio. A quick overview of some of the World Polio Day highlights
:: The Every Last Child project series was launched by UNICEF, which covers over 30 wide-ranging profiles of governments, front-line workers, and the stakeholders involved in the collective polio eradication efforts across Nigeria, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
:: Featured on polioeradication.org: Coffee with Polio Experts – Dr Arlene King, Chair of the RCC for the Americas, and GCC Containment Working Group talks to WHO about the importance of safe and secure containment of polioviruses, in places where needed, and the accompanying risk and responsibility that come with retaining the pathogen.
 
Afghanistan – Three new cases of wild poliovirus (WPV1) and four WPV1 positive environmental samples.
  
Democratic Republic of Congo – one new case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).
 
Pakistan – No new case of wild poliovirus (WPV1) and seven WPV1 positive environmental samples
 
Nigeria – two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).
 
Somalia – four new cVDPV2 positive environmental samples. See country sections below for more details.

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::::::
 
Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.
WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 3 Nov 2018 ]
Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 13: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  30 October 2018
:: DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo  1 November 2018
[See Milestones above for more detail]

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis
:: Weekly Situation Report 48 – 25 October 2018
[Excerpt]
…WHO immunization team is planning to start passive surveillance activity of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP), Vaccine Preventable diseases m(VPDs), Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFIs) for early notification and in compliance with the

Ministry of Health (MoH) surveillance program….
 
Nigeria – No new announcements identified
Somalia – No new announcements identified
South Sudan – No new announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new announcements identified
Yemen – No new announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 3 Nov 2018 ]
Myanmar
:: Weekly Situation Report 48 – 25 October 2018 [see above]
Brazil (in Portugese) – No new announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new announcements identified
Iraq – No new announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new announcements identified
Libya – No new announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new announcements identified
Niger – No new announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new announcements identified
Sudan – No new announcements identified
Ukraine – No new announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new announcements identified
 

Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin, Week 43: 20 – 26 October 2018
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 55 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
:: Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Cholera in Cameroon
:: Dengue in Senegal
:: Hepatitis E in Central African Republic.

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 3 Nov 2018 ]
Afghanistan
Angola (in Portuguese)
Chad
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Mali
Papua New Guinea
Peru
Tanzania
Tropical Cyclone Gira
Zambia
 
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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic   No new announcements identified.
YemenNo new announcements identified.
::::::
UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia 
:: Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 66 | 15-28 October 2018
 
Somalia  No new announcements identified.
 
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“Other Emergencies”
Indonesia: Central Sulawesi Earthquake
:: Central Sulawesi Earthquake & Tsunami: Humanitarian Country Team Situation Report #6 (as of 30 October 2018)

The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 10 November 2018

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 10 Nov 2018

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates  [see PDF]The Sentinel_ period ending 20 Oct 2018
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Presidential Proclamation Addressing Mass Migration Through the Southern Border of the United States – 9 Nov 2018

“Mass Migration” – U.S. Presidential Proclamation
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Presidential Proclamation Addressing Mass Migration Through the Southern Border of the United States
Issued on: November 9, 2018
[Editor’s text bolding]

The United States expects the arrival at the border between the United States and Mexico (southern border) of a substantial number of aliens primarily from Central America who appear to have no lawful basis for admission into our country. They are traveling in large, organized groups through Mexico and reportedly intend to enter the United States unlawfully or without proper documentation and to seek asylum, despite the fact that, based on past experience, a significant majority will not be eligible for or be granted that benefit. Many entered Mexico unlawfully — some with violence — and have rejected opportunities to apply for asylum and benefits in Mexico. The arrival of large numbers of aliens will contribute to the overloading of our immigration and asylum system and to the release of thousands of aliens into the interior of the United States. The continuing and threatened mass migration of aliens with no basis for admission into the United States through our southern border has precipitated a crisis and undermines the integrity of our borders. I therefore must take immediate action to protect the national interest, and to maintain the effectiveness of the asylum system for legitimate asylum seekers who demonstrate that they have fled persecution and warrant the many special benefits associated with asylum.

In recent weeks, an average of approximately 2,000 inadmissible aliens have entered each day at our southern border. In Fiscal Year 2018 overall, 124,511 aliens were found inadmissible at ports of entry on the southern border, while 396,579 aliens were apprehended entering the United States unlawfully between such ports of entry. The great number of aliens who cross unlawfully into the United States through the southern border consumes tremendous resources as the Government seeks to surveil, apprehend, screen, process, and detain them.

Aliens who enter the United States unlawfully or without proper documentation and are subject to expedited removal may avoid being promptly removed by demonstrating, during an initial screening process, a credible fear of persecution or torture. Approximately 2 decades ago, most aliens deemed inadmissible at a port of entry or apprehended after unlawfully entering the United States through the southern border were single adults who were promptly returned to Mexico, and very few asserted a fear of return. Since then, however, there has been a massive increase in fear-of-persecution or torture claims by aliens who enter the United States through the southern border. The vast majority of such aliens are found to satisfy the credible-fear threshold, although only a fraction of the claimants whose claims are adjudicated ultimately qualify for asylum or other protection. Aliens found to have a credible fear are often released into the interior of the United States, as a result of a lack of detention space and a variety of other legal and practical difficulties, pending adjudication of their claims in a full removal proceeding in immigration court. The immigration adjudication process often takes years to complete because of the growing volume of claims and because of the need to expedite proceedings for detained aliens. During that time, many released aliens fail to appear for hearings, do not comply with subsequent orders of removal, or are difficult to locate and remove.

Members of family units pose particular challenges. The Federal Government lacks sufficient facilities to house families together. Virtually all members of family units who enter the United States through the southern border, unlawfully or without proper documentation, and that are found to have a credible fear of persecution, are thus released into the United States. Against this backdrop of near-assurance of release, the number of such aliens traveling as family units who enter through the southern border and claim a credible fear of persecution has greatly increased. And large numbers of family units decide to make the dangerous and unlawful border crossing with their children.

The United States has a long and proud history of offering protection to aliens who are fleeing persecution and torture and who qualify under the standards articulated in our immigration laws, including through our asylum system and the Refugee Admissions Program. But our system is being overwhelmed by migration through our southern border. Crossing the border to avoid detection and then, if apprehended, claiming a fear of persecution is in too many instances an avenue to near-automatic release into the interior of the United States. Once released, such aliens are very difficult to remove. An additional influx of large groups of aliens arriving at once through the southern border would add tremendous strain to an already taxed system, especially if they avoid orderly processing by unlawfully crossing the southern border.

The entry of large numbers of aliens into the United States unlawfully between ports of entry on the southern border is contrary to the national interest, and our law has long recognized that aliens who seek to lawfully enter the United States must do so at ports of entry. Unlawful entry puts lives of both law enforcement and aliens at risk. By contrast, entry at ports of entry at the southern border allows for orderly processing, which enables the efficient deployment of law enforcement resources across our vast southern border.

Failing to take immediate action to stem the mass migration the United States is currently experiencing and anticipating would only encourage additional mass unlawful migration and further overwhelming of the system.

Other presidents have taken strong action to prevent mass migration. In Proclamation 4865 of September 29, 1981 (High Seas Interdiction of Illegal Aliens), in response to an influx of Haitian nationals traveling to the United States by sea, President Reagan suspended the entry of undocumented aliens from the high seas and ordered the Coast Guard to intercept such aliens before they reached United States shores and to return them to their point of origin. In Executive Order 12807 of May 24, 1992 (Interdiction of Illegal Aliens), in response to a dramatic increase in the unlawful mass migration of Haitian nationals to the United States, President Bush ordered additional measures to interdict such Haitian nationals and return them to their home country. The Supreme Court upheld the legality of those measures in Sale v. Haitian Centers Council, Inc., 509 U.S. 155 (1993).

I am similarly acting to suspend, for a limited period, the entry of certain aliens in order to address the problem of large numbers of aliens traveling through Mexico to enter our country unlawfully or without proper documentation. I am tailoring the suspension to channel these aliens to ports of entry, so that, if they enter the United States, they do so in an orderly and controlled manner instead of unlawfully. Under this suspension, aliens entering through the southern border, even those without proper documentation, may, consistent with this proclamation, avail themselves of our asylum system, provided that they properly present themselves for inspection at a port of entry. In anticipation of a large group of aliens arriving in the coming weeks, I am directing the Secretary of Homeland Security to commit additional resources to support our ports of entry at the southern border to assist in processing those aliens — and all others arriving at our ports of entry — as efficiently as possible.

But aliens who enter the United States unlawfully through the southern border in contravention of this proclamation will be ineligible to be granted asylum under the regulation promulgated by the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security that became effective earlier today. Those aliens may, however, still seek other forms of protection from persecution or torture. In addition, this limited suspension will facilitate ongoing negotiations with Mexico and other countries regarding appropriate cooperative arrangements to prevent unlawful mass migration to the United States through the southern border. Thus, this proclamation is also necessary to manage and conduct the foreign affairs of the United States effectively.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a), respectively) hereby find that, absent the measures set forth in this proclamation, the entry into the United States of persons described in section 1 of this proclamation would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and that their entry should be subject to certain restrictions, limitations, and exceptions. I therefore hereby proclaim the following:

Section 1. Suspension and Limitation on Entry. The entry of any alien into the United States across the international boundary between the United States and Mexico is hereby suspended and limited, subject to section 2 of this proclamation. That suspension and limitation shall expire 90 days after the date of this proclamation or the date on which an agreement permits the United States to remove aliens to Mexico in compliance with the terms of section 208(a)(2)(A) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1158(a)(2)(A)), whichever is earlier.

Sec. 2. Scope and Implementation of Suspension and Limitation on Entry.
(a) The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 1 of this proclamation shall apply only to aliens who enter the United States after the date of this proclamation.
(b) The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 1 of this proclamation shall not apply to any alien who enters the United States at a port of entry and properly presents for inspection, or to any lawful permanent resident of the United States.
(c) Nothing in this proclamation shall limit an alien entering the United States from being considered for withholding of removal under section 241(b)(3) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1231(b)(3)) or protection pursuant to the regulations promulgated under the authority of the implementing legislation regarding the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, or limit the statutory processes afforded to unaccompanied alien children upon entering the United States under section 279 of title 6, United States Code, and section 1232 of title 8, United States Code.
(d) No later than 90 days after the date of this proclamation, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall jointly submit to the President, through the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, a recommendation on whether an extension or renewal of the suspension or limitation on entry in section 1 of this proclamation is in the interests of the United States…

Sec. 3. Interdiction. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Government of Mexico regarding appropriate steps — consistent with applicable law and the foreign policy, national security, and public-safety interests of the United States — to address the approach of large groups of aliens traveling through Mexico with the intent of entering the United States unlawfully, including efforts to deter, dissuade, and return such aliens before they physically enter United States territory through the southern border.

Sec. 4. Severability. It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the interests of the United States. Accordingly:
(a) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this proclamation and the application of its other provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby; and
(b) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the failure to follow certain procedures, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements to conform with existing law and with any applicable court orders.

Sec. 5. General Provisions.
(a) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of November, in the year of our Lord two thousand eighteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-third.
DONALD J. TRUMP

::::::

UNHCR statement on new US regulation on asylum
9 Nov 2018
Among the people on the move in Central America and Mexico today, many are fleeing life-threatening violence or persecution and are in need of international protection. UNHCR expects all countries, including the United States, to make sure any person in need of refugee protection and humanitarian assistance is able to receive both promptly and without obstruction in accordance with the 1967 refugee Protocol to which the United States is a party.

In an ideal and predictable world, asylum seekers should present themselves at the border and request protection. However, the reality of refugee flight is complex and requires management in a structured way with dignified reception arrangements. Long-standing insufficient reception capacity at official U.S. southern border ports of entry is resulting in significant delays in northern Mexico and is forcing many vulnerable asylum-seekers to turn in desperation to smugglers and cross the border irregularly. Many asylum-seeking families making this desperate choice are not trying to evade border authorities.

National security and dignified reception of refugees and asylum-seekers are not mutually exclusive, but rather mutually reinforcing. UNHCR stands ready at all times to support the United States and all governments and civil society partners working to guarantee that any person fleeing life-threatening violence or persecution is able to reach safe ground and is able to have their claim reviewed.

42 NGOs warn that return of refugees to Myanmar now would be dangerous and premature

Rohingya
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42 NGOs warn that return of refugees to Myanmar now would be dangerous and premature
Friday 9 November 2018
Humanitarian and civil society agencies working in Rakhine State in Myanmar and in the Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh are deeply concerned that the repatriation of refugees will commence in mid-November, according to an announcement of the Joint Working Group of the Governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar on 30th October.

The Governments of Myanmar and Bangladesh have made assurances to the refugees and the international community that repatriation will only happen when it is safe, voluntary and dignified. We call on both governments to stand by their commitments.

The UN has repeatedly stated that conditions in Myanmar are not conducive to return at this time. Refugees continue to flee Myanmar and facilitating repatriation now would be premature. The involuntary return of refugees from Bangladesh to Myanmar, where their lives and safety remain at grave risk, is a violation of the fundamental principle of non-refoulement.

Refugees have consistently told us that they want to return to their own homes and places of origin, or to places of their choice. They want guarantees that they can enjoy equal rights and citizenship. They want assurances that the extreme human rights violations they have suffered will stop, and those responsible for the violence they fled will be brought to justice. They do not want to return to conditions of confinement with no freedom of movement or access to services and livelihoods. They fear that these conditions will become permanent, like the situation in Central Rakhine State where 128,000 Rohingya and other Muslims have been confined to camps with no freedom of movement for over six years.

Most of all, refugees tell us that they are afraid. They fled to Bangladesh to seek safety and they are very grateful to the Government of Bangladesh for giving them a safe haven. However, they are terrified about what will happen to them if they are returned to Myanmar now, and distressed by the lack of information they have received.

“We really want to go back, but not without citizenship… They must give us citizenship and a normal life, like the other people are living in Myanmar…. They need to keep us in peace and not hurt us.”
“I have a brother back in Myanmar. … They are still afraid to sleep at night. They are still afraid to be killed in their beds. After coming here, through the blessings of Allah and the Bangladesh government, we can sleep at night. But my brother, he cannot sleep at night.” [Refugee woman living in camps, mid-thirties].”

As the UN agency mandated with the protection of refugees, UNHCR must play a key role in any organized return process, including providing refugees with objective, up-to-date, and accurate information in relevant languages and formats to allow them to make genuinely free and informed choices about whether and when they would like to exercise their right to return, obtaining their consent and monitoring that conditions are safe for return in Myanmar.

We call on the Governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar to uphold their commitments, and ensure that refugees in Bangladesh are able to make free and informed choices about return, based on access to full and impartial information about conditions in Rakhine State. UN agencies should have unimpeded access to all parts of Rakhine State in order to provide this information and to monitor the situation in areas of potential return.

Joint statement from:
Association for Aid and Relief Japan, Concern Worldwide, ActionAid, Danish Refugee Council, Welthungerhilfe, Malteser, Medair, Mission Aviation Fellowship, Voluntary Service Overseas, Peace Winds Japan, CARE, Terre des hommes, Handicap International – Humanity & Inclusion, Action Against Hunger USA, World Concern, People in Need, Médecins du Monde, Solidarités International, Oxfam, International Rescue Committee, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, CBM, Save the Children, Plan International, World Vision, Medical Teams International, ACT Alliance, INGO Forum Myanmar

Universal Periodic Review – Saudi Arabia

Human Rights Council –Universal Periodic Review
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Universal Periodic Review – Saudi Arabia
Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review
Thirty-first session
5–16 November 2018
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National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 15 (a) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia*
[Excerpt]
V. Compliance with the applicable rules of international humanitarian law
138. The Kingdom is keen to comply fully with the provisions and rules of international humanitarian law and international human rights law. As such, it affirms that all military operations by the Coalition to Support Legitimacy in Yemen are conducted in a manner fully consistent with those provisions and rules. Coalition forces are anxious not only to spare the civilian population, particularly women and children, and civilian objects from the effects of the armed conflict but have assumed responsibility for protecting them from the gross abuses committed by Iranian-backed Houthi armed militias, including indiscriminate attacks, killing, torture, forced evacuation and disappearance, blockade and the use of child soldiers.

139. The Coalition to Support Legitimacy in Yemen has put in place strict rules of engagement consistent with the provisions and rules of international humanitarian law, including a number of mechanisms and procedures to prevent targeting errors. The Coalition investigates all allegations of the targeting of civilians, civilian facilities and humanitarian organizations and announces the results of these investigations at press conferences.

140. The Coalition accords maximum importance to humanitarian relief in Yemen and coordinates activity with international organizations. The King Salman Humanitarian Aid and Relief Centre is working in partnership with a number of domestic and international organizations and institutions to implement a raft of projects and programmes, including a project to tackle the cholera epidemic caused by the damage done by Iranian-backed Houthi armed militias to the environmental and health facilities which would have helped prevent the spread of the disease. The Centre has also launched a number of programmes to rehabilitate child soldiers conscripted by Iranian-backed Houthi armed militias, as well as support projects for Yemeni women and families. In addition, the Centre has launched nutrition, medical, health and environmental projects to address the impact of the shortage of food and medicines and raise the capacity of the health services to support the human right to food and medicine within a framework of standards free of any discrimination or prejudice.

141. Under the 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan for Yemen, announced by the Coalition to Support Legitimacy in Yemen, the Kingdom has contributed 465 million US dollars of financial aid through the United Nations to cover programmes implemented by various United Nations organizations. At the same time, it has contributed 35 million dollars to support infrastructure projects in Yemen…

World Bank Group and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Commit to Innovation to Speed Up Sanitation for All

Health – Sanitation
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World Bank Group and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Commit to Innovation to Speed Up Sanitation for All
BEIJING, November 6, 2018 – The World Bank Group and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have committed to work together to unlock at least $1billion in investments in innovative sanitation solutions to help address the urgent challenge of 2.6 billion people around the world living without access to sanitation services.

Announced today at the Reinvented Toilet Expo in Beijing, the Urban Sanitation Innovation Partnership aims to speed up the adoption of innovative technologies and approaches so that everyone has access to safely managed and affordable sanitation services.

This new partnership builds on commitments from the World Bank Group and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to ‘Citywide Inclusive Sanitation’, which promotes innovations in urban sanitation delivery through a mix of service delivery solutions – with a focus on poor households. It also leverages the World Bank Group’s work in developing countries to improve policy and investment environments for more and better sanitation infrastructure and technology-driven solutions.

Over the next two years alone, this partnership is expected to help improve the lives of millions of people through access to innovative sanitation services. Currently, 1.6 million people die each year from diseases related to poor sanitation and hygiene. And of the 8.9 percent of deaths of children under five due to diarrhea each year – more than half are caused by poor sanitation.

“Healthier children become healthier adults, who then reach their full potential and contribute more to economies and societies. That principle is at the core of the World Bank Group’s Human Capital Project,” World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said. “We cannot achieve our goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity unless everyone has a chance to lead healthy lives – and that means sustainable and safe sanitation. With this partnership, we hope to catalyze funding and creative ideas from both the public and private sectors to solve the challenges of sanitation everywhere in the world.”…