The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 28 October 2017

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

pdf version: The Sentinel_ period ending 28 October 2017

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research
:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals

Refugees – Rohingya Crisis :: Pledging Conference; Cholera Vaccination

Refugees – Rohingya Crisis

.
Donors Pledge Over USD 344 Million in Reponse to Rohingya Refugee Crisis
2017-10-23 20:00
Geneva – The international donor community today announced pledges for more than US$344 million to urgently ramp up the delivery of critical humanitarian assistance to Rohingya refugees and host communities in Bangladesh.

Funding was also pledged for the humanitarian response inside Myanmar where violence, insecurity and growing humanitarian needs have sent nearly 600,000 Rohingya from the northern Rakhine state into Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh since 25 August. This ongoing exodus is the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world…

35 pledges were made at the conference in Geneva which was co-organised by the UN Migration Agency (IOM), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and with Kuwait and the European Union as co-hosts.

“More than 800,000 stateless Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh aspire to a life that meets their immediate needs for food, medicine, water, and shelter. But beyond that, a life that has hope for the future where their identity is recognised, they are free from discrimination, and are able to return safely to their homes in Myanmar. As we come together in solidarity, I want to thank Bangladesh and its refugee hosting communities and the donors for supporting them,” said UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Filippo Grandi….

“Today’s pledges from the international community will help rebuild Rohingya refugees’ lives. Without these vital funds, humanitarians would not be able to continue providing protection and life-saving aid to one of the most vulnerable groups in the world. While we are thankful, I hope that the end of this conference does not mean the end of new funding commitments. We have not reached our target and each percentage point we are under means thousands without food, healthcare and shelter,” said William Lacy Swing, UN Migration Director General.

Conference participants stressed that the international community must help bring a peaceful solution to the plight of the Rohingya and ensure conditions that will allow for their eventual voluntary return in safety and dignity. The origins and the solutions to the crisis lie in Myanmar…

A preliminary list of pledges announced today is available here. Pledges above USD$10 million:
United Kingdom 63,087,248
European Commission 42,452,830
United States of America 38,000,000
Sweden 23,804,576
Australia 23,492,561
Saudi Arabia 20,000,000
CERF 19,000,000
Denmark 18,454,027
Canada 1 15,745,790
Kuwait 15,000,000
Qatar 2 15,000,000

1 Includes an additional $9.6 million announced on 23 October following the close of the conference. /
2 Announced on 24 October.
The UN acknowledges the generous contributions of donors who provide unearmarked or core funding to humanitarian partners, CERF and country-based pooled funds.

::::::

Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Bulletin (MMWB) – Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh Volume No 2: 22 October 2017
[Excerpt]
5.1 Cholera vaccination campaign in Cox’s Bazar and Bandarban
Since August 2017, an influx of approximately 600,000 from Myanmar arrived in Bangladesh. Overcrowding, bad sanitation and malnutrition were prevalent and outbreaks of cholera resulting in thousands of cases anticipated. Considering lack of safe drinking water, proper sanitation facilities and poor personal hygiene practices, the UMN camps of two sub-districts, Teknaf and Ukhia, were at high risk of spreading cholera as experience from similar situations in other countries has shown. Moreover, it has been reported that a huge number of people are suffering from acute watery diarrhoea.

Based on field assessments conducted by WHO in the newly established settlements and makeshift camps, the water and sanitation conductions are dire. Sanitation facilities range between 1 latrine per 1,000 to 5,000 people, open defecation is a widespread practice. Coupled with rainfall these pose serious public health threats…

On 10 October 2017, the Government of Bangladesh launched an oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign with the support of WHO for 10 days, targeting over 650,000 people in 11 camps/settlements in Cox’s Bazar district, Chittagong division. It was the first OCV campaign to be conducted in the country, and comes at a critical time after UMNs influx to the country since August 2017.

Because of the large numbers of UMNs living in the camps and within the host community and the limited supply of OCV, the vaccination campaign in Cox’s Bazar Bangladesh was limited to UMN camps at full capacity or overcrowded and to all host community areas. The large influx of UMNs increased uncertainty about the size of the target population, data from the most recent measles vaccination campaign (2017) were used to estimate the population aged >1-year-old.

The vaccination campaign was preceded by extensive social mobilization efforts to inform the community of the benefits, availability and necessity of the vaccine. The main message included that vaccination is a preventive measure against cholera that supplements, but does not replace, other traditional cholera control measures such as improving access to safe water and sanitation and hygiene measures/interventions.

The vaccination strategy included a combination of fixed sites and mobile teams for door-to-door vaccine delivery. The vaccine cold chain was maintained, and vaccines were transported using a sufficient number of vaccine carriers and ice packs for a door-to-door strategy. Experience from WHO’s technical staff supported the implementation of this campaign during the public health emergency.

As of October 18, 2017, a total of 700,487 persons were reported to have been vaccinated of them; 691,574 representing 105% % (691,574/658,372) of the target population (Table 2). An additional 8,913 (not included in the original micro-plan) were vaccination in 2 sites; Anjumanpara, and Sabrang Entry Point…

Migration and Its Impact on Cities – WEF Research

Migration and Its Impact on Cities
World Economic Forum
October 2017 :: 172 pages
Report PDF: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/Migration_Impact_Cities_report_2017_HR.pdf
.
Report structure
Chapter 1 Migration & Its Impact
Defining migration, its types, causes, impact and key trends
This chapter focuses primarily on the different types of migration, their causes, the current migration flows and the top migration corridors of the world. It also includes a detailed assessment of the economic, social and political impact of migration (both positive and negative) at the destination across sectors of urban infrastructure and services.

Chapter 2 City Perspectives
Perspectives of city leaders on migration
This chapter profiles 22 cities across the globe that have been significantly affected by migration, starting with a brief history of migration in the city, elaborating on the current migration trends, issues and impacts, and the solutions implemented to address the impact on urban infrastructure and services for the migrant population. It also includes key lessons and takeaways from each city on managing migration.

Chapter 3 Analysing Challenges & Opportunities
Analysing the challenges and opportunities, with solutions to counter migration issues
This chapter provides collective analyses of perspectives of the city leaders featured and of other cities researched on the challenges and opportunities of migration globally. It also provides real-world solutions to the issues presented by migration, backed up by case-study examples from around the world.

Chapter 4 City Preparedness
City preparedness for future migration
This chapter elaborates on a framework for cities expected to be impacted the most by the current or future trends in migration, and expands on the role of businesses, government, civil society and the migrant community, among others, that would prepare them to manage migration more effectively.

Chapter 5 The Way Forward
The way forward — Call for action
The final chapter draws inferences from the case studies’ main takeaways and from the solutions illustrated in the previous chapters. Finally, a roadmap for the long-term integration of migrants is shared to guide city leaders looking to address migration issues today and in the future.

.
Press Release
Migration in Cities: New Report Examines the Challenges and How to Address Them
25 Oct 2017
:: The World Economic Forum has released its new report on Migration and Cities covering the different types and causes of migration, with a particular focus on its impact on cities around the world and how they can be better prepared.
:: The report includes 22 case studies from the most affected cities in each region of the world. These look at the solutions implemented or initiated to meet the needs of the migrant population, particularly in the delivery of vital urban infrastructure and services – housing, education, health, employment, integration and social cohesion, and safety and security.
:: It explores the role of the migrant community, government, the private sector, international organizations and wider civil society in addressing the issue of migration in cities, and includes a call for action for city leaders to better prepare themselves for migration.

Women, Peace and Security Index 2017/18: Tracking Sustainable Peace through Inclusion, Justice, and Security for Women.

Gender – Development – Security – Peace

.
Women, Peace and Security Index 2017/18: Tracking Sustainable Peace through Inclusion, Justice, and Security for Women.
Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
Peace Research Institute of Oslo
2017 :: 84 pages
Report PDF: https://giwps.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/WPS-Index-Report-2017-18.pdf
Executive Summary
The new global Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Index introduced in this report bridges insights from gender and development indices with those from peace and security indices. The index incorporates three basic dimensions of well- being—inclusion (economic, social, political); justice (formal laws and informal discrimination); and security (at the family, community, and societal levels)—and captures and quantifies them through 11 indicators. It ranks 153 countries—covering more than 98 percent of the world’s population—along these three dimensions in a way that focuses attention on key achievements and major shortcomings. It reflects a shared vision that countries are more peaceful and prosperous when women are accorded full and equal rights and opportunity. A primary goal of the index is to accelerate progress on both the international Women, Peace and Security agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, bringing partners together around an agenda for women’s inclusion, justice, and security. It offers opportunities for stakeholders to review and discuss challenges and to identify opportunities for trans- formative change. It highlights key priorities, points toward a roadmap of needed reforms, and can inform more effective partnerships and collaboration.

Preface
Global indices are a way to assess and compare national progress against international goals, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, by distilling complex information into a single
number. Such composite indices can capture and synthesize an array of data in a way that can be readily understood and that is especially informative for multidimensional concepts.

The new global Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Index introduced in this report bridges insights from gender and development indices with those from peace and security indices. The index incorporates three basic dimensions of wellbeing—inclusion (economic, social, political); justice (formal laws and informal discrimination); and security (at the family, community, and societal levels) – and captures and quantifies them through 11 indicators. It ranks 153 countries [covering more than 98 percent of the world’s population] along these three dimensions in a way that focuses attention on key achievements and major shortcomings. It reflects a shared vision that countries are more peaceful and prosperous when women are accorded full and equal rights and opportunity.

A primary goal of the index is to accelerate progress on both the international Women, Peace and Security agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, bringing partners together around an agenda for women’s inclusion, justice, and security. It offers opportunities for stakeholders to review and discuss challenges and to identify opportunities for transformative change. It highlights key priorities, points toward a roadmap of needed reforms, and can inform more effective partnerships and collaboration.

Alongside much-needed reforms, this report aims to inspire further thought and analysis, as well as better data, to illuminate the constrainers and enablers of progress for women and girls to meet the international community’s goals and commitments. Highly comparative and easy to
understand numbers can call out low performers and help to reinforce good performance.

The WPS Index and the findings it reveals are likely to be especially useful to several key stakeholder groups:
:: Policymakers can draw on the results to set priorities for action to improve women’s inclusion, justice, and/or security in countries that are performing poorly overall or where achievements are unbalanced across the three dimensions and the underlying indicators. The index results reveal the potential for improvements, as well as more generalized deficits that require attention.
:: Civil society can use the results to spotlight achievements as well as injustice and to hold decision-makers accountable, especially given the links to the Sustainable Development Goals to which all national governments have committed.
:: Businesses and investors can better analyze risks and assess the policy environment in countries based on rankings on inclusion, justice, and security.
:: Academics from a range of disciplines—peace and security studies, development economics, gender specialties – can exploit a wealth of possibilities for research from the WPS Index, which provides a major database for analysis as well as online tools to investigate the data.
:: The international development community can see a comprehensive picture of achievements and gaps along a range of fronts, including areas needing greater focus and investment.

The index will be updated every two years. It will track progress ahead of the UN High-level Political Forum in 2019, for follow-up and review of the Sustainable Development Goals, and the 20th anniversary of 2000 UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, providing a platform for scaling up efforts toward 2030.

US: International affairs experts reach consensus on how to restructure foreign aid

Development – U.S. Foreign Aid: Governance/Structures

.
REDESIGN CONSENSUS: A Plan for U.S. Assistance
October 2017 :: 7 pages
Unified Proposal
This set of ambitious yet practical steps constitutes a holistic package designed to overcome the fragmentation of development and humanitarian assistance in order to create a structure and alignment that enhances the effectiveness, accountability, and efficiency of U.S. assistance.

.
US: International affairs experts reach consensus on how to restructure foreign aid
20 October 2017
George Ingram, Senior Fellow – Global Economy and Development
Brookings
The Trump administration has demonstrated that there is no better way to galvanize a community and activate energy than with an existential threat. The international affairs community has been heated about proposed cuts and reforms to development and diplomatic agencies, but until now, experts have failed to agree upon a unified response.

While Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has recently acknowledged the important and unique roles of agencies like the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development, the administration’s call for radical reforms remains threatening. These include the proposed 30 percent reduction in funding for international affairs, reports of merging USAID into the Department of State, arbitrary cuts in staffing, and an Office of Management and Budget directive to all agencies that required reorganization plans by September to increase agency efficiency and reduce staff levels.

The reaction of the development and foreign policy experts, including allies on Capitol Hill, has been to muster the justification for existing funding levels and to enlist policymakers to roll up their sleeves and take advantage of the chaos and directive for agency reorganization to propose more effective organizational structures.

First out of the gate was an article in December in Foreign Affairs magazine by former USAID administrators Brian Atwood and Andrew Natsios that proposed consolidating all development and humanitarian programs in a global development department. Six additional plans came out this summer from an array of organizations.

All of the plans are based on an assessment of the importance of U.S. foreign assistance programs to the national interests—security, economic, and humanitarian—and a common analysis of the underlying problems. That analysis posits that U.S. development and humanitarian programs are well managed and make important contributions to advancing U.S. interests around the world, but face barriers to maximizing their potential. U.S. assistance is hamstrung by fragmentation (25 agencies are involved in the mix); a lack of alignment of functions and responsibilities and therefore accountability; and antiquated and overly complex systems for personnel, information technology, transparency, procurement, and evaluation.

The recommendations in all the plans pursue common objectives—better alignment and consolidation to create clear lines of authority and accountability; more strategic approaches to guide assistance policies; and more responsive, modernized systems.

Six (listed below) of the seven plans offer solutions (see MFAN identification of 10 common priorities) focused on a stronger, more capable, independently lead development agency, and most recommend a more robust instrument for development finance. The specifics range from two plans that propose a bold approach of creating a new cabinet level agency to house the broad array of humanitarian, development, and stabilization programs to four plans that seek to strengthen USAID as the lead development agency and fix existing systems and processes.

With multiple executive agencies and congressional committees seized with figuring out how and what elements of the U.S. aid architecture to reorder, but barraged by a maze of proposals (see USGLC report on over 60 reports), the authors of the six plans decided to plot a singular, unified path forward.

Keeping their eye on the bigger aim of achieving the goal of an empowered U.S. development function, the authors reached agreement on an Aid Redesign Consensus. This unified approach has two pillars: an empowered development agency, USAID, and a new global finance corporation (GFC).

USAID would be the lead U.S. agency for humanitarian, development, and stabilization programs and granted full authority for its budget and an enhanced policy function. The administrator would be assigned cabinet rank, have a seat on the National Security Council, chair the Millennium Challenge Corporation and the new GFC, and lead the development of a U.S. government-wide humanitarian and development strategy. Certain development, humanitarian, and stabilization functions, including President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), would move from the Department of State to USAID.

The GFC would comprise the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and relevant functions of the Trade and Development Agency and would have the additional capabilities of equity investment and technical assistance. The GFC would have a long-term authorization and could retain a portion of its revenues. This would allow the GFC to operate more along the lines of its European counterparts.

The authors of these various plans still believe that more aspirational recommendations would ultimately serve U.S. interests. However, since the aid redesign discussions have been complicated by an array of plans, it has become important to identify a set of pragmatic and less controversial actions that can be taken now to move the U.S. development function to a more effective, efficient architecture.

Redesign Plans [citations links at title link above]
J. Brian Atwood and Andrew Natsios: Rethinking U.S. National Security: A New Role for International Development Center for Global Development (CGD) – Jeremy Konyndyk and Cindy Huang: A Practical Vision for US Development Reform
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) – Bipartisan Taskforce on Reorganization: Reforming and Reorganizing U.S. Foreign Assistance
USAID’s Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA) Efficiency and Effectiveness in Organization (EEO) Working Group: Recommendations of the Efficiency and Effectiveness in Organization Working Group
Atlantic Council: State Department Reform Report
Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network (MFAN) – Co-Chairs George Ingram, Tessie San Martin, and Connie Veillette: A New Foreign Aid Architecture Fit for Purpose and MFAN’s Guiding Principles for Effective U.S. Assistance

Nature Editorial: Data science can improve aid distribution

Featured Journal Content

Nature
Volume 550 Number 7677 pp429-554 26 October 2017
http://www.nature.com/nature/current_issue.html
Editorials
Data science can improve aid distribution
Online platforms can help to steer emergency response and ensure money is well spent.
Over the past decade, non-profit organizations have sent millions of small stoves to families in the developing world. These appliances are intended to stop people from cooking over open flames indoors — an activity linked to four million deaths per year, attributable to household air pollution.

But economists and public-health researchers have published studies that question the benefits of this effort. One randomized controlled trial (RCT), reported in 2012 and involving 15,000 households in rural India, found no evidence of improved lung function in women in the first four years after they received a stove (see go.nature.com/2zjgwny).

The RCT suggests that these efforts might be revised. But as useful as RCTs are in development economics and global health, they have limits. Findings in one place might be wildly different in another. And in a crisis, first responders are typically too busy trying to provide shelter, health care and bare necessities to design and carry out a controlled set-up.

But humanitarian groups can still improve their efforts in the short and long term through evidence obtained with new technology. A Nature News Feature this week highlights software called the Dharma Platform, which enables workers on the front line of hurricanes, outbreaks or other crises to record, share and analyse useful data — for example, the spread of disease in rural villages. Dharma is being tested by Médecins Sans Frontières (or Doctors Without Borders), the World Health Organization and other groups combating crises in the Middle East. And it is just one of many new technologies that will make data faster to collect and easier to exchange.

The rush to provide food, shelter and health care can be as chaotic as the disaster itself. Hundreds of millions of dollars flood into the world’s largest agencies and non-governmental organizations, which often sub-contract delivery to dozens of smaller groups. In such a system, the best source of data is a person on the ground — often someone low in an organization’s chain of command. It’s this aid worker who listens as a mother describes how she’s received four sacks of rice, yet her babies have nothing to eat. This essential feedback is typically recorded on paper. If it makes it into a report, weeks or months will pass by the time it gets to headquarters, where managers then adjust the system.

Platforms such as Dharma that collate real-time data could quicken this response time by informing groups of what people need, and help to reassure donors that their money is being spent wisely. After an acute crisis, researchers can use data collected in the heat of the moment to answer big-picture questions. For example, how might assistance better prevent tragedies that follow disasters, such as the cholera epidemic in the wake of Haiti’s 2010 earthquake, or blindness in survivors of Ebola? As long as data collection is organized, consistent and secure, researchers distanced from those delivering aid can evaluate projects objectively.

Requesting more data and analysing them coldly will make failures more evident. In turn, philanthropists, taxpayers and governments that donate money should evaluate each inefficiency sensibly, and not be unforgiving. For example, a tiny fraction of donated insecticide-treated bednets may be used as fishing nets — but that fact should not negate an intervention that has been shown to reduce cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum by up to 62% (C. Lengeler Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. http://doi.org/c4f9c7; 2004). Failures at all scales must be upheld as lessons in the continuing struggle to do what’s right — and not as arguments to abandon aid completely

The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 21 October 2017

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

pdf version: The Sentinel_ period ending 21 October 2017

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research
:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals