The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 20 July 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF-The Sentinel_ period ending 20 Jul 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern

DRC – Ebola/Cholera/Polio/Measles

Disease Outbreak News (DONs}
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
18 July 2019
…The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces continued this past week with similar transmission intensity to recent weeks. While the stability of the transmission intensity of the outbreak is an indication of the strong response efforts to limit local transmission in affected health zones, the spread of EVD into new geographical areas and continued insecurity in the affected regions continue to complicate the control of the outbreak.

A salient example of this is the confirmed case of EVD that was reported in Goma, a city of approximately two million inhabitants close to the Rwandan border, on 14 July 2019. The case was a man who travelled to the city from Beni by bus, visiting a local health centre on arrival where the alert was raised. He transferred the same day to the Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) in Goma, and died while being transferred to the ETC in Butembo. The case’s full travel history is known, and all contacts are being identified and followed-up. Vaccination of his contacts, and contacts of contacts, in Goma commenced on 15 July 2019. The confirmation of a case of EVD in the city of Goma had been long anticipated. Preparation activities, including the vaccination of health workers, intensive training in infection prevention and control, and heightened surveillance have been ongoing for more than six months. Neighbouring Rwanda is also conducting preparedness activities. Rumours of his contacts travelling to Bukavu, South Kivu, have been investigated and ruled out by response teams…

.

Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern
17 July 2019 News release Geneva
WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus today declared the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

“It is time for the world to take notice and redouble our efforts. We need to work together in solidarity with the DRC to end this outbreak and build a better health system,” said Dr. Tedros. “Extraordinary work has been done for almost a year under the most difficult circumstances. We all owe it to these responders — coming from not just WHO but also government, partners and communities — to shoulder more of the burden.”…

“It is important that the world follows these recommendations. It is also crucial that states do not use the PHEIC as an excuse to impose trade or travel restrictions, which would have a negative impact on the response and on the lives and livelihoods of people in the region,” said Professor Robert Steffen, chair of the Emergency Committee…

“This is about mothers, fathers and children – too often entire families are stricken. At the heart of this are communities and individual tragedies,” said Dr. Tedros. “The PHEIC should not be used to stigmatize or penalize the very people who are most in need of our help.”…

United Nations Launches Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office to Support Cooperation on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration

Migration Governance

United Nations Launches Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office to Support Cooperation on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration
2019-07-17
New York – UN Member States and UN entities Tuesday (16/07) unveiled a new trust fund in support of achieving safe, orderly and regular migration.

The initiative, The Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office (MPTF), was called for by the Global Compact on Migration (GCM), adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 2018. The aim is to provide financing for innovative programmes designed to support States’ migration priorities, ensure the better protection of migrants, foster cooperation, and further the promotion of migration governance that benefits all.

“The Migration Fund can provide the impetus for all of us to take the next step; to bring the Migration Compact to life, to move us closer to realizing the SDGs, and to effect positive change in the field of migration,” explained Amina Mohammed, UN Deputy Secretary-General, at the launch held at the UNICEF’s New York headquarters.

For his part, António Vitorino—Director General of the International Organization for Migration and chair of the UN Network on Migration—compared the positive impacts of safe and regular migration with the ‘tremendous human and economic losses incurred when migration is poorly managed. DG Vitorino noted that migrants make up 3.4 per cent of the world population and contribute 10 per cent of global GDP, with 85 per cent of migrants’ earnings contributing to their host countries’s economies, and only a small proportion being remitted back to their homelands.

Nonetheless, migration today continues to be a life-threatening transaction for far too many men, women and children. According to UN figures, since 2014, over 32,000 migrants worldwide have lost their lives or gone missing along migratory routes. Many have fallen victim to trafficking, arbitrary detention and exploitative or forced labour. Many more victims remain unaccounted for.

Migration governance, DG. Vitorino added, is “one of the most urgent and profound tests of international cooperation in our time.”

DG Vitorino noted, too, that social discourse on migration currently is too often framed in binary terms: those in favour or against migration. Research shows, however, that migration is overwhelmingly positive for migrants and communities of origin, transit and destination–when managed in a safe, regular and orderly manner.

The Multi-Partner Trust Fund is open for contributions, with a target of USD 25 million for its first year of operations. Under the aegis of a representative Steering Committee comprising States, the UN system, and a broad range of partners, the Fund will facilitate the exchange of best practices and evidence-based migration policies.

The event was organized by the Chairs of the Friends of Migration group and the UN Migration Network, which brings together all UN entities working on migration. Find more information on the Migration MPTF here.

20 million children missed out on lifesaving measles, diphtheria and tetanus vaccines in 2018

Global Health – Child Immunization

20 million children missed out on lifesaving measles, diphtheria and tetanus vaccines in 2018
New estimates find dangerous stagnation of global vaccination rates, due to conflict, inequality and complacency
NEW YORK/GENEVA, 15 July 2019 – 20 million children worldwide – more than 1 in 10 – missed out on lifesaving vaccines such as measles, diphtheria and tetanus in 2018, according to new data from WHO and UNICEF.

Globally, since 2010, vaccination coverage with three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) and one dose of the measles vaccine has stalled at around 86 per cent. While high, this is not sufficient. 95 per cent coverage is needed – globally, across countries, and communities – to protect against outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

“Vaccines are one of our most important tools for preventing outbreaks and keeping the world safe,” said Director-General of the World Health Organization Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “While most children today are being vaccinated, far too many are left behind. Unacceptably, it’s often those who are most at risk– the poorest, the most marginalized, those touched by conflict or forced from their homes – who are persistently missed,” he said.

Most unvaccinated children live in the poorest countries and are disproportionately in fragile or conflict-affected states. Almost half are in just 16 countries – Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Yemen…

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019

Food Security/Nutrition

Press release
Joint statement by the Principals of FAO, WHO, UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP and UN OCHA
14/07/2019 [
As principals of the United Nations humanitarian system, we have all looked into the blank stare and nearly lifeless body of a badly malnourished child, whose ever-so shallow breathing is often the only sign of life.

We have all been deeply affected when a child could not be saved.

But we have also witnessed the tireless work that United Nations staff and partners do every day – often in dangerous environments – so that children on the brink of death can recover and so that hungry children lacking enough nutritious food never fall to that level.

Every year, the United Nations provides 10 million children suffering from acute malnutrition (“wasting”) with services they need to recover, including nutrition treatment, treatment of infections such as diarrheal diseases, hygiene and sanitation services, and access to clean water and the nutritious diets needed for heathy growth. Two million malnourished pregnant women and new mothers received food supplementation to improve their nutrition and that of their baby.

Furthermore, the United Nations also supports millions more children every year so that they do not fall into a state of malnutrition, by promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding and adequate access to healthy and nutritious diet at all times.

Yet, after decades of falling, the number of hungry people in the world has increased in recent years. Now they number 820 million. In addition, nearly 50 million of children under the age of five are “wasted” – that is children suffering from acute malnutrition, marked by their being underweight for their height. And 149 million are “stunted” – that is suffering stunted growth in height and development caused by malnutrition.

For many children, undernutrition begins in the womb due to mothers not being able to access the healthy diets they need. The children who survive these risky pregnancies and the first critical months of life are more likely to have some form of malnutrition – being stunted or wasted – and millions suffer both forms at the same time. These children are much more likely to die before the age of 5 because their immunity to infections is weakened by a lack of nutrients. Those who survive may go on to suffer poor growth and mental development.

In many cases, their cognitive development is permanently impaired, and they perform worse in school and are less productive as adults. They are at greater risk of living a life in poverty, which means their children will be more likely to suffer the same fate. Breaking the intergenerational transmission cycle of malnutrition is key to eradicating malnutrition in all its forms and to reach Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

The United Nations is working to put a more unified response in place. To draw attention to the growing problem of malnutrition and bring the international community together for an integrated response, the United Nations will launch the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World tomorrow to share the latest information on the number of individuals in the world suffering from hunger and more importantly the number of children still wasted and stunted.

The United Nations is learning from existing studies to improve the tools we have to treat and prevent malnutrition. We are supporting research to ensure improvements to existing treatment guidelines are based on the best possible evidence.

In the light of that, the World Health Organization will publish comprehensive, updated guidelines on treating acute malnutrition (“wasting”) by the middle of 2021. We are working to build environments that ensure access to healthy and nutritious diets at all times and ensure families with acutely malnourished children can access life-saving treatments, including in their communities and outreach clinics so they do not have to travel up to hundreds of miles to get a child to a clinic.

More importantly, the United Nations is also working to prevent malnutrition with increased efforts, especially for households with infants and children, in livelihood development, social protection measures, and accessible health services that can result, increased consumption of healthy and nutritious diets, and healthy growth and development.

With conflict driving much of the growth in hunger and malnutrition in recent years, we are streamlining treatment and prevention for acute malnutrition in complex emergencies. Recognizing, however, that the larger burden of malnutrition in terms of absolute numbers affected is outside of conflict, we are also working with governments to enhance prevention and treatment programmes for all forms of malnutrition.

Before the end of the year, we will launch the UN Global Plan of Action on Wasting to underscore our commitment to global action over the next decade to stop malnutrition before it occurs and to give children the chance to reach their full potential, while ensuring that all children and women suffering from acute malnutrition receive the treatment they need.

To succeed, the United Nations is ready to support the member states to further develop and implement their policies, programmes and strategies, to address the burden of all forms of malnutrition. For success, we need the world’s commitment to be matched by the required funding. It is a good investment – for every dollar spent on preventing child malnutrition there is a US$16 return in reduced health costs and increase productivity.

The future of millions of children hangs in the balance. We must not let them down.

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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019
SAFEGUARDING AGAINST ECONOMIC SLOWDOWNS AND DOWNTURNS
FAO, 2019 :: 239 pages
Key Messages
:: Analysis of household and individual level data from selected countries across all regions shows that food insecurity plays an important role as a determinant of many different forms of malnutrition. In upper-middle and high-income countries in particular, living in a food-insecure household is a predictor of obesity in school-age children, adolescents, and adults.

:: Previous editions of this report show how conflict and climate variability and extremes are exacerbating the above trends. This year the report shows that the uneven pace of economic recovery and continuing poor economic performance in many countries after the 2008–2009 global economic downturn are also undermining efforts to end hunger and malnutrition. Episodes of financial stress, elevated trade tensions and tightening financial conditions are contributing to uncertain global economic prospects.

:: Hunger has increased in many countries where the economy has slowed down or contracted, mostly in middle-income countries. Furthermore, economic shocks are contributing to prolonging and worsening the severity of food crises caused primarily by conflict and climate shocks.

:: Out of 65 countries where recent adverse impacts of economic slowdowns and downturns on food security and nutrition have been strongest, 52 countries rely heavily on primary commodity exports and/or imports.

:: Economic slowdowns or downturns disproportionally undermine food security and nutrition where inequalities are greater. Income inequality increases the likelihood of severe food insecurity, and this effect is 20 percent higher for low-income countries compared with middle income countries. Income and wealth inequalities are also closely associated with undernutrition, while more complex inequality patterns are associated with obesity.

:: To safeguard food security and nutrition, it is critical to already have in place economic and social policies to counteract the effects of adverse economic cycles when they arrive, while avoiding cuts in essential services, such as health care and education, at all costs. In the longer term, however, this will only be possible through fostering pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation, particularly in countries that rely heavily on trade in primary commodities.

:: To ensure that structural transformation is pro-poor and inclusive requires integrating food security and nutrition concerns into poverty reduction efforts, while ensuring that reducing gender inequalities and social exclusion of population groups is either the means to, or outcome of, improved food security and nutrition.

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Press Release
World hunger is still not going down after three years and obesity is still growing – UN report
More than 820 million people are hungry globally
15 July 2019 News release
An estimated 820 million people did not have enough to eat in 2018, up from 811 million in the previous year, which is the third year of increase in a row. This underscores the immense challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger by 2030, says a new edition of the annual The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report released today.

The pace of progress in halving the number of children who are stunted and in reducing the number of babies born with low birth weight is too slow, which also puts the SDG 2 nutrition targets further out of reach, according to the report.

At the same time, adding to these challenges, overweight and obesity continue to increase in all regions, particularly among school-age children and adults.

The chances of being food insecure are higher for women than men in every continent, with the largest gap in Latin America.

“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends will have to be bolder, not only in scale but also in terms of multisectoral collaboration,” the heads of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) urged in their joint foreword to the report.

Hunger is increasing in many countries where economic growth is lagging, particularly in middle-income countries and those that rely heavily on international primary commodity trade. The annual UN report also found that income inequality is rising in many of the countries where hunger is on the rise, making it even more difficult for the poor, vulnerable or marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns and downturns.

“We must foster pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation focusing on people and placing communities at the centre to reduce economic vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track to ending hunger, food insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the UN leaders said.

Key facts and figures
:: Number of hungry people in the world in 2018: 821.6 million (or 1 in 9 people)  in Asia: 513.9 million
in Africa: 256.1million
in Latin America and the Caribbean: 42.5 million
:: Number of moderately or severely food insecure: 2 billion (26.4%)
:: Babies born with low birth weight: 20.5 million (one in seven)
:: Children under 5 affected by stunting (low height-for-age): 148.9 million (21.9%)
:: Children under 5 affected by wasting (low weight-for-height): 49.5 million (7.3%)
:: Children under 5 who are overweight (high weight-for-height): 40 million (5.9%)
:: School-age children and adolescents who are overweight: 338 million
:: Adults who are obese: 672 million (13% or 1 in 8 adults)

Emergencies

Emergencies

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 17 July 2019
:: In Central African Republic, a series of previously-detected/reported VDPV2s have now been officially classified as ‘circulating’.  Since initial detection of the viruses in May, the country had already operationally considered these viruses to represent an outbreak and implemented emergency outbreak response and declared the event to be a national public health emergency.
:: A cVDPV2 originating in Jigawa, Nigeria, continues to spread.  Genetically-linked virus has been confirmed from an environmental sample in Ghana.
:: In Myanmar, a cVDPV1 has been reported and response measures are being implemented.  Neighbouring countries have been informed of the confirmed cVDPV1, and surveillance for polioviruses is being strengthened across the region.  Myanmar had previously successfully stopped a cVDPV2 outbreak in 2015.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan — one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case and one WPV1-positive environmental sample;
:: Pakistan— four WPV1 cases and three WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria —three circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases, two cVDPV2-positive environmental samples, and one cVDPV2 isolated from a healthy contact;
:: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) — five cVDPV2 cases;
:: Central African Republic (CAR) — three cVDPV2 cases, one case classified cVDPV2 based on a positive contact, and ten cVDPV2 community/close contacts ;
:: Angola — one cVDPV2 isolated from healthy child;
:: Ghana — one cVDPV2-positive environmental sample linked to Jigawa/Nigeria outbreak;
:: Myanmar — two cVDPV1 cases and two cVDPV1 positive contacts.

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.
WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 20 Jul 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern 19 July 2019
:: High-level meeting on the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo affirms support for Government-led response and UN system-wide approach 15 July 2019
:: 50: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu 16 July 2019
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs} Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
18 July 2019
[See DRC Ebola+ above for detail]

Syrian Arab Republic
:: Elizabeth Hoff: Seven years of tireless work in war-torn Syria 15 July 2019

Cyclone Idai – No new digest announcements identified
Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 20 Jul 2019]

Measles in Europe
:: Vaccination against measles increases amid ongoing measles outbreaks in Europe 15-07-2019

MERS-CoV
:: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
16 July 2019
From 1 through 31 May 2019, the National International Health Regulations (IHR) Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 14 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection, including five deaths…

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
HIV in Pakistan – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017)
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 20 Jul 2019]

Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018 – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

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The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 13 July 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF-The Sentinel_ period ending 13 Jul 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]