The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
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Week ending 25 June 2016

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor &
Founding Managing Director
GE2P2 – Center for Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

pdf version: The Sentinel_ week ending 25 June 2016

:: Journal Watch

:: Journal Watch

The Sentinel will track key peer-reviewed journals which address a broad range of interests in human rights, humanitarian response, health and development. It is not intended to be exhaustive. We will add to those monitored below as we encounter relevant content and upon recommendation from readers. We selectively provide full text of abstracts and other content but note that successful access to some of the articles and other content may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher. Please suggest additional journals you feel warrant coverage.

BMC Infectious Diseases (Accessed 25 June 2016)

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 25 June 2016)
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Research article
Clinical features of suspected Ebola cases referred to the Moyamba ETC, Sierra Leone: challenges in the later stages of the 2014 outbreak
The last ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been the most important since 1976. EVD cases decreased drastically in Sierra Leone at the beginning of 2015. We aim to determine the clinical findings and evolu…
Javier Arranz, Karen Marie Lundeby, Shoaib Hassan, Luis Matías Zabala Fuentes, Pedro San José Garcés, Yngvar Lunde Haaskjold, Hakon Angell Bolkan, Kurt Osthuus Krogh, James Jongopi, Sindre Mellesmo, Ola Josendal, Asmund Opstad, Erling Svensen, Alfred Sandy Kamara, David P. Roberts, Paul D. Stamper…
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:308
Published on: 22 June 2016

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Debate
Towards cash transfer interventions for tuberculosis prevention, care and control: key operational challenges and research priorities
Cash transfer interventions are forms of social protection based on the provision of cash to vulnerable households with the aim of reduce risk, vulnerability, chronic poverty and improve human capital.
Delia Boccia, Debora Pedrazzoli, Tom Wingfield, Ernesto Jaramillo, Knut Lönnroth, James Lewis, James Hargreaves and Carlton A. Evans
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:307
Published on: 21 June 2016

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Research article
Dual rapid lateral flow immunoassay fingerstick wholeblood testing for syphilis and HIV infections is acceptable and accurate, Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Dual rapid tests for HIV and syphilis infections allow for detection of HIV infection and syphilis at the point-of-care. Those tests have been evaluated in laboratory settings and show excellent performance but…
Claire C. Bristow, Linda Severe, Jean William Pape, Marjan Javanbakht, Sung-Jae Lee, Warren Scott Comulada and Jeffrey D. Klausner
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:302

Beyond viral suppression of HIV – the new quality of life frontier

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 25 June 2016)

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Opinion
Beyond viral suppression of HIV – the new quality of life frontier
Jeffrey V. Lazarus, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Simon E. Barton, Dominique Costagliola, Nikos Dedes, Julia del Amo Valero, Jose M. Gatell, Ricardo Baptista-Leite, Luís Mendão, Kholoud Porter, Stefano Vella and Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh
BMC Medicine 2016 14:94
Published on: 22 June 2016
Abstract
Background
In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016–2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the ‘90-90-90’ target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression.
Discussion
The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV-related discrimination. We propose adding a ‘fourth 90’ to the testing and treatment target: ensure that 90 % of people with viral load suppression have good health-related quality of life. The new target would expand the continuum-of-services paradigm beyond the existing endpoint of viral suppression. Good health-related quality of life for PLHIV entails attention to two domains: comorbidities and self-perceived quality of life.
Conclusions
Health systems everywhere need to become more integrated and more people-centered to successfully meet the needs of virally suppressed PLHIV. By doing so, these systems can better meet the needs of all of their constituents – regardless of HIV status – in an era when many populations worldwide are living much longer with multiple comorbidities.

Knowledge, practice and associated factors of essential newborn care at home among mothers in Gulomekada District, Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia, 2014

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpregnancychildbirth/content
(Accessed 25 June 2016)

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Research article
Knowledge, practice and associated factors of essential newborn care at home among mothers in Gulomekada District, Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia, 2014
Haftom Gebrehiwot Misgna, Haftu Berhe Gebru and Mulugeta Molla Birhanu
Published on: 21 June 2016
Abstract
Background
Around the world, more than three million newborns die in their first months of life every year. In Ethiopia during the last five years period; neonatal mortality is 37 deaths per 1000 live births. Even though there is an improvement compared to the past five years, there is still high home delivery 90 %, and high neonatal mortality about the Millennium Development Goal, which aims to be less than 32/1000 live births in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study is to assess maternal knowledge, practice and associated factors of essential newborn care at home in Gulomekada District Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia.

Methods
A community-based cross-sectional study is conducted in 296 mothers from Gulomekada District by using simple random sampling technique. Data entry and analysis is carried out by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-20. The magnitude of the association between different variables about the outcome variable is measured by odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval. A binary logistic regression analysis is made to obtain odds ratio and the confidence interval of statistical associations. The goodness of fit had tested by Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic and all variables with P-value greater than 0.05 are fitted to the multivariate model. Variables with P < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis are included in the final model, and statistical significance is declared at P < 0.05.

Result
Eighty percent (80.4 %) study participants had good knowledge on essential new born care and 92.9 % had the good practice of essential new born care. About 60 % of mothers applied butter or oil on the cord stump for their last baby. Marital status and education are significantly associated with knowledge, whereas urban residence mothers with good knowledge on essential newborn care and employed mothers are significantly associated with mothers’ practice of essential newborn care.

Conclusion
Almost all mothers know and practice essential newborn care correctly except oil or butter application to the cord stump is highly practiced which should be avoided. Only marital status and educational status are significantly associated with mothers’ knowledge.

Involving hard-to-reach ethnic minorities in low-budget health research: lessons from a health survey among Moluccans in the Netherlands

BMC Research Notes
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcresnotes/content
(Accessed 25 June 2016)

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Research article
Involving hard-to-reach ethnic minorities in low-budget health research: lessons from a health survey among Moluccans in the Netherlands
Adee J. Bodewes and Anton E. Kunst
BMC Research Notes 2016 9:319
Published on: 21 June 2016
Abstract
Background
There is little evidence on which strategies are effective in recruiting minority groups in low-budget health surveys. We evaluated different recruitment strategies for their impact on response rates in a hard-to-reach minority population in the Netherlands.
Methods
We conducted a health survey in 19 Moluccan districts (MDs). Each MD had its own set of recruitment strategies, such as information meetings, involving social or local media, involving community organizations, and door-to-door collection. The association between recruitment strategies and MD-specific response rates was assessed with logistic regression analysis.
Results
The overall response rate was 24 %, and varied from 9 to 58 %. Higher rates were obtained when the strategy included door-to-door collection (OR 1.57) and ‘active’ key informants (OR 1.68). No positive associations with response rates were observed of the other strategies.
Conclusions
The overall low response rate in this study may be due to high levels of distrust, segmentation within the community and high respect for privacy among Moluccans. Our study shows that in such communities, response may be increased by a highly personal recruitment approach and a strong commitment and participation of community key-figures.

Local and foreign authorship of maternal health interventional research in low- and middle-income countries: systematic mapping of publications 2000–2012

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/
[Accessed 25 June 2016]

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Research
Local and foreign authorship of maternal health interventional research in low- and middle-income countries: systematic mapping of publications 2000–2012
Matthew F. Chersich, Duane Blaauw, Mari Dumbaugh, Loveday Penn-Kekana, Ashar Dhana, Siphiwe Thwala, Leon Bijlmakers, Emily Vargas, Elinor Kern, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Josephine Kavanagh, Priya Mannava, Langelihle Mlotshwa, Victor Becerril-Montekio, Katharine Footman and Helen Rees
Published on: 23 June 2016
Abstract
Background
Researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are under-represented in scientific literature. Mapping of authorship of articles can provide an assessment of data ownership and research capacity in LMICs over time and identify variations between different settings.
Methods
Systematic mapping of maternal health interventional research in LMICs from 2000 to 2012, comparing country of study and of affiliation of first authors. Studies on health systems or promotion; community-based activities; and haemorrhage, hypertension, HIV/STIs and malaria were included. Following review of 35,078 titles and abstracts, 2292 full-text publications were included. Data ownership was measured by the proportion of articles with an LMIC lead author (author affiliated with an LMIC institution).
Results
The total number of papers led by an LMIC author rose from 45.0/year in 2000–2003 to 98.0/year in 2004–2007, but increased only slightly thereafter to 113.1/year in 2008–2012. In the same periods, the proportion of papers led by a local author was 58.4 %, 60.8 % and 60.1 %, respectively. Data ownership varies markedly between countries. A quarter of countries led more than 75 % of their research; while in 10 countries, under 25 % of publications had a local first author. Researchers at LMIC institutions led 56.6 % (1297) of all papers, but only 26.8 % of systematic reviews (65/243), 29.9 % of modelling studies (44/147), and 33.2 % of articles in journals with an Impact Factor ≥5 (61/184). Sub-Saharan Africa authors led 54.2 % (538/993) of studies in the region, while 73.4 % did in Latin America and the Caribbean (223/304). Authors affiliated with United States (561) and United Kingdom (207) institutions together account for a third of publications. Around two thirds of USAID and European Union funded studies had high-income country leads, twice as many as that of Wellcome Trust and Rockefeller Foundation.
Conclusions
There are marked gaps in data ownership and these have not diminished over time. Increased locally-led publications, however, does suggest a growing capacity in LMIC institutions to analyse and articulate research findings. Differences in author attribution between funders might signal important variations in funders’ expectations of authorship and discrepancies in how funders understand collaboration. More stringent authorship oversight and reconsideration of authorship guidelines could facilitate growth in LMIC leadership. Left unaddressed, deficiencies in research ownership will continue to hinder alignment between the research undertaken and knowledge needs of LMICs.