The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
Week ending 28 July 2018

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 28 July 2018

:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals

Global Governance

Crimea Declaration
Press Statement
Michael R. Pompeo, Secretary of State. Washington, DC
July 25, 2018
Russia, through its 2014 invasion of Ukraine and its attempted annexation of Crimea, sought to undermine a bedrock international principle shared by democratic states: that no country can change the borders of another by force. The states of the world, including Russia, agreed to this principle in the United Nations Charter, pledging to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. This fundamental principle — which was reaffirmed in the Helsinki Final Act — constitutes one of the foundations upon which our shared security and safety rests.

As we did in the Welles Declaration in 1940, the United States reaffirms as policy its refusal to recognize the Kremlin’s claims of sovereignty over territory seized by force in contravention of international law. In concert with allies, partners, and the international community, the United States rejects Russia’s attempted annexation of Crimea and pledges to maintain this policy until Ukraine’s territorial integrity is restored.

The United States calls on Russia to respect the principles to which it has long claimed to adhere and to end its occupation of Crimea. As democratic states seek to build a free, just, and prosperous world, we must uphold our commitment to the international principle of sovereign equality and respect the territorial integrity of other states. Through its actions, Russia has acted in a manner unworthy of a great nation and has chosen to isolate itself from the international community.

Global Disability Summit sparks 170 commitments to tackle stigma and discrimination against people with disabilities

Human Rights

Global Disability Summit sparks 170 commitments to tackle stigma and discrimination against people with disabilities
The UK Government’s first ever Global Disability Summit has yielded ambitious commitments from a host of governments and other organisations.
24 July 2018 DFID Press release
:: The Global Disability Summit has resulted in 170 ambitious commitments from all over the world to take action on stigma and discrimination against people with disabilities
:: The commitments follow the call to “move from rhetoric to action” from the International Development Secretary, Penny Mordaunt, in the build up to the Summit
:: 301 organisations and governments have signed the Charter for Change – an action plan to implement the UN International Convention on Disability

The UK Government’s first ever Global Disability Summit has yielded ambitious commitments from a host of governments and other organisations to tackle discrimination and stigma against peop
le with disabilities…

Among the most significant pledges made were commitments to pass transformative new laws to protect the rights of people with disabilities, as well as assurances to help those affected by humanitarian crises. There were also commitments to help people with disabilities to access vital technology and work with the private sector around the world to reduce their prices.
:: Nine national governments have committed to passing or formulating new or revised laws to give people with disabilities greater rights in the countries in which they live
:: 18 governments and other organisations have committed to new action plans on disability inclusion
:: 33 governments and other organisations have pledged to specifically support more people with disabilities affected by humanitarian crises – this includes the Australian government who will give $16.4m to support disability inclusive action in response to the Syria crisis
:: Nine organisations and governments, including USAID, The World Health Organisation and UNICEF, have, along with the UK, joined the Global Partnership on assistive technology, aimed at transforming access to, and the affordability of, life changing devices and basic technology, like wheelchairs and glasses

Seven UN agencies attended the Summit, and they committed to change the way they include people with disabilities into their work…

Advancing global health and strengthening the HIV response in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals: the International AIDS Society—Lancet Commission

Featured Journal Content

The Lancet
Jul 28, 2018 Volume 392 Number 10144 p253-358
The Lancet Commissions
Advancing global health and strengthening the HIV response in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals: the International AIDS Society—Lancet Commission
Linda-Gail Bekker, George Alleyne, Stefan Baral, Javier Cepeda, Demetre Daskalakis, David Dowdy, Mark Dybul, Serge Eholie, Kene Esom, Geoff Garnett, Anna Grimsrud, James Hakim, Diane Havlir, Michael T Isbell, Leigh Johnson, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Parastu Kasaie, Michel Kazatchkine, Nduku Kilonzo, Michael Klag, Marina Klein, Sharon R Lewin, Chewe Luo, Keletso Makofane, Natasha K Martin, Kenneth Mayer, Gregorio Millett, Ntobeko Ntusi, Loyce Pace, Carey Pike, Peter Piot, Anton Pozniak, Thomas C Quinn, Jurgen Rockstroh, Jirair Ratevosian, Owen Ryan, Serra Sippel, Bruno Spire, Agnes Soucat, Ann Starrs, Steffanie A Strathdee, Nicholas Thomson, Stefano Vella, Mauro Schechter, Peter Vickerman, Brian Weir, Chris Beyrer

Key messages
:: The HIV pandemic is not on track to end, and the prevailing discourse on ending AIDS has bred a dangerous complacency and may have hastened the weakening of global resolve to combat HIV

:: Existing HIV tools and strategies are insufficient, and although dramatic gains can be made through maximizing existing prevention and treatment strategies, the HIV pandemic is likely to remain a major global challenge for the foreseeable future

:: Tens of millions of people will require sustained access to antiretroviral therapy for decades to come, vigilance will be needed to prevent a resurgence of the epidemic as the largest-ever generation of young people age into adolescence and young adulthood, and intensified efforts are required to address HIV among populations and settings that are being left behind

:: Allowing the pandemic to rebound after achieving such remarkable progress would not only increase the human and financial costs of HIV, but it would potentially demoralise the global health field and diminish support for similarly ambitious global health undertakings

:: A rejuvenated global effort on HIV is essential; to renew and strengthen the global HIV response, the world’s impressive commitment to the scaling up of HIV treatment services must be matched by a similarly robust commitment to expanded access to HIV prevention

:: The HIV response must make common cause with the broader global health field to herald a new era of global solidarity for health, and specific action is urgently needed to respond to the rapidly rising health toll associated with non-communicable diseases, including taking health into account in the development of public policies of all kinds. HIV services should, where feasible, be integrated with broader health services, in co-located sites where possible, with the aim of improving both HIV-related and non-HIV-specific health outcomes; greater integration of HIV and global health must preserve and build on key attributes of the HIV response, including participatory community and civil society engagement and an ironclad commitment to human rights, gender equality, and equitable access to health and social justice

:: The new era of global health solidarity should focus on the development of robust, flexible, people-centred health systems to end communicable diseases, develop effective measures to address the steady rise of non-communicable diseases, achieve universal health coverage, provide coordinated services tailored to the needs of health service users, and effectively address the social and structural determinants of health.

Human Rights as Political Determinants of Health: A Retrospective Study of North Korean Refugees

Featured Journal Content

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
August 2018 Volume 55, Issue 2, p133-280, e19-e52
Global Health Promotion and Prevention
Human Rights as Political Determinants of Health: A Retrospective Study of North Korean Refugees
Jiho Cha, Pamela J. Surkan, Jaeshin Kim, Isabel A. Yoon, Courtland Robinson, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Hayoung Lee
Published online: June 19, 2018
The gravity, scale, and nature of human rights violations are severe in North Korea. Little is known about the mental health consequences of the lifelong exposures to these violations.
In 2014–2015, a retrospective study was conducted among 383 North Korean refugees in South Korea using respondent-driven sampling to access this hidden population. This study collected information on the full range of political and economic rights violations and measured post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms, and social functioning by standard instruments. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with the adjustment of political, economic, and demographic variables in 2016–2017.
The results indicate elevated symptoms of anxiety (60.1%, 95% CI=54.3%, 65.7%), depression (56.3%, 95% CI=50.8%, 61.9%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (22.8%, 95% CI=18.6%, 27.4%), which are significantly associated with exposures to political rights violations (ten to 19 items versus non-exposure: anxiety AOR=16.78, p<0.001, depression AOR=12.52, p<0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder AOR=16.71, p<0.05), and economic rights violations (seven to 13 items versus non-exposure: anxiety AOR=5.68, p<0.001, depression AOR=4.23, p<0.01, post-traumatic stress disorder AOR=5.85, p<0.05). The mean score of social functioning was also lower in those who were exposed to political (adjusted difference=–13.29, p<0.001) and economic rights violations (adjusted difference= –11.20, p<0.001).
This study highlights mental health consequences of lifelong human rights violations in North Korea. Beyond the conventional approach, it suggests the need for a collaborative preventive response from global health and human rights activists to address human rights in regard to mental health determinants of the 20 million people in North Korea.

African Development Bank reiterates support for Lake Chad Basin Heritage Project

Heritage Stewardship

African Development Bank reiterates support for Lake Chad Basin Heritage Project
25/07/2018 – The African Development Bank will continue its support for an environmental initiative to protect the shrinking Lake Chad – a source of water to millions of people in central and West Africa, the Bank’s Director General for Central Africa Region, Ousmane Dore told UN bodies and representatives of west and central African UN missions.

In the past decade, the Bank has invested more than $160 Million through regional projects aimed at fighting the ecological and humanitarian crises in the Lake Chad region.

The UNESCO Biosphere and Heritage of Lake Chad (BIOPALT) project, funded by the Bank, is a multi-disciplinary project, linked to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The project is implemented in five countries within the Lake Chad area: Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon and the Central African Republic.

The lake has shrunk to nine tenths of its size due to climate change, population growth and irrigation.
Addressing participants at the meeting, UNESCO Assistant Director General Flavia Schlegel described it as a platform for governments, UN agencies, civil society and academia to reflect on the relevance of adopting a multisectoral response to solving the region’s humanitarian and ecological crisis.

The Lake Chad area is important for its terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity, but a 90% reduction in rainfall has affected more than 40 million people, Zacharie Serge Raoul Nyanid, Permanent Mission of Cameroon, said.

Dore who represented the Bank at the meeting, reiterated its commitment to work closely with the five member countries’ governments to restore and rehabilitate degraded ecosystems, improve the livelihoods of the communities and bring back lasting peace in the region…