The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
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Week ending 27 January 2018

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

pdf version: The Sentinel_ period ending 27 January 2018

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research
:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals

Statement from Dr. Jill Biden, Save the Children U.S. Board Chair on the Attack in Jalalabad, Afghanistan

Statement from Dr. Jill Biden, Save the Children U.S. Board Chair on the Attack in Jalalabad, Afghanistan
FAIRFIELD, Conn. (January 25, 2018) — In response to the attack on Save the Children’s office in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, Dr. Jill Biden, Save the Children U.S. Board Chair, on behalf of its Board of Directors today issued the following statement:

“Our hearts are broken, and our prayers are with the victims, our beloved colleagues, and their families.

“While Afghanistan is known to be one of the most difficult and dangerous places to work in the world, Save the Children has been dedicated to improving the lives of Afghan children and their families for more than 40 years. Through community-based education and healthcare programs in 16 provinces across the country, we have reached more than 1.4 million children. And when disaster strikes, our staff is ready to respond, ensuring that we quickly meet the needs of the most vulnerable children.

“While we are united in our sorrow we remain determined to honor the legacy of those who lost their lives yesterday through the work of Save the Children. Our mission will guide us through this trying time – we will continue to serve the children of the world with hope and courage, and we will continue to defend the safety of the men and women who heed that call.”

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NGO-Community Afghanistan Calls For Action To Ensure The Protection Of Aid Workers Following The Attack On Non-Governmental Organizations In Jalalabad
(KABUL, AFGHANISTAN) – We, the 61 undersigned National and International Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), members of Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief and Development (ACBAR), condemn in the strongest terms the atrocious attack on NGO offices in Jalalabad (Nangarhar) on Wednesday 24 January. It has been reported that there is a loss of at least 7 lives, more than 31 people injured, including five children. We would like to pass our condolences to the families of the victims of this atrocious attack…

Joint Letter on U.S. Funding to UNRWA

Joint Letter on U.S. Funding to UNRWA
[Editor’s text bolding]

January 24, 2018
The Honorable Rex W. Tillerson, Secretary of State
The Honorable James N. Mattis , Secretary of Defense
The Honorable Nikki Haley, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations
Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, National Security Advisor National Security Council

Dear Secretary Tillerson, Secretary Mattis, Ambassador Haley and General McMaster,

As leaders of organizations deeply involved in programs and advocacy surrounding international humanitarian response, we write to object in the strongest of terms to the decision to withhold $65 million of the planned United States contribution to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).

We are deeply concerned by the humanitarian consequences of this decision on life-sustaining assistance to children, women and men in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Whether it is emergency food aid, access to primary healthcare, access to primary education, or other critical support to vulnerable populations, there is no question that these cuts, if maintained, will have dire consequences.

We are particularly alarmed that this decision impacting humanitarian aid to civilians is not based on any assessment of need, but rather designed both to punish Palestinian political leaders and to force political concessions from them. This is simply unacceptable as a rationale for denying civilians humanitarian assistance, and a dangerous and striking departure from U.S. policy on international humanitarian assistance.

In 1984, in justifying its decision to provide humanitarian aid to famine-affected Ethiopia, the Reagan Administration declared that “a hungry child knows no politics,” and, indeed, this sentiment has guided U.S. policy makers for decades.

This sentiment is, for example, reflected in the international Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative, an inter-governmental donor forum and network that the United States helped to establish during the Administration of George W. Bush. That Initiative includes best practices that the Bush administration and subsequent administrations have endorsed, including the propositions that “humanitarian action should be guided by … the centrality of saving human lives and alleviating suffering wherever it is found,” and that humanitarian assistance to vulnerable populations should be “solely on the basis of need, without discrimination between or within affected population.”

To be sure, application of these objectives by U.S. administrations has been imperfect, but all U.S. administrations have aspired to them, and it is deeply troubling to witness such a casual disregard of principles that have been crucial to U.S. policy deliberations over many decades. We hope sincerely that you will reconsider this unfortunate decision, which we believe undermines critically important values as well as U.S. leadership around the world.

Joyce Ajlouny, General Secretary, American Friends Service Committee
J Ron Byler, Executive Director, Mennonite Central Committee U.S.
Sean Callahan, President and CEO, Catholic Relief Services
Joel Charny, Director, Norwegian Refugee Council USA
Sarah Costa, Executive Director, Women’s Refugee Commission
Halil Demir, Executive Director, Zakat Foundation of America
Mark Hetfield, President & CEO, HIAS
Margaret Huang, Executive Director, Amnesty International USA
Mohamed S. Idris, Executive Director, American Relief Agency for the Horn of Africa
Neal Keny-Guyer, Chief Executive Officer, Mercy Corps
Anwar Ahmad Khan, President, Islamic Relief US
Abby Maxman, President and CEO, Oxfam America
Rev. John L. McCullough, President and CEO, Church World Service
Giulia McPherson, Interim Executive Director, Jesuit Refugee Service/USA
Carolyn Miles, President and CEO, Save the Children
David Miliband, President and CEO, International Rescue Committee
Eskinder Negash, Acting Chief Executive Officer, U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Michelle Nunn, President and CEO, CARE USA
Eric Schwart, President, Refugees International
David A. Weiss, President & CEO, Global Communities
Samuel A. Worthington, Chief Executive Officer , InterAction

World Economic Forum Closes with Call to Action: Globalize Compassion and Leave No One Behind

“Globalizing Compassion”

Editor’s Note
The World Economic Forum last week commanded a good deal of media attention and with over 50 media releases on various announcements and initiative [see links at Work Economic Forum under INGO Watch below]. The summary media release on the Forum is excerpted just below.

World Economic Forum Closes with Call to Action: Globalize Compassion and Leave No One Behind
The 48th World Economic Forum Annual Meeting came to a close with Sharan Burrow stressing the need for compassion and human values
Press Release 26 Jan 2018
…Wrapping up the final session, Sharan Burrow, General Secretary of the International Trade Union Confederation and one of the seven female Co-Chairs of the meeting, celebrated the spirit of inclusion, diversity and respect for human rights that characterized this year’s meeting. She paid tribute to the meeting’s artists, whose work put people at the centre of the story and concluded with a call to action: “Let’s ensure that Davos 2018 is just the beginning of a movement where we globalize compassion and ensure a world in which no one is left behind.”

The 48th Annual Meeting was convened under the theme, Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World with the aim of identifying ways for humanity to work collectively once more in the face of urgent global and regional challenges…

[Editor’s selection and text bolding of Forum outcomes]
:: Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, announced that Canada will double its commitment to the Global Partnership for Education Fund, providing an extra $180 million to the fund between 2018 and 2020.

:: Preparing workers for the future: A Forum report published during the meeting, Towards a Reskilling Revolution, provides the guidance needed to find new, gainful employment for the millions of workers expected to lose their jobs due to technological change. Separately, the Forum announced two initiatives that will have a direct impact on workers: Closing the Skills Gap, a global, business-led scheme that aims to deliver new skills to 10 million workers by 2020; and the IT Industry Skills Initiative, whose SkillSET portal aims to reach 1 million IT workers by 2021.

:: Safeguarding our oceans: A new multistakeholder initiative, the Friends of Ocean Action initiative, was launched with the aim of delivering an “Ocean Action Track” to protect and conserve oceans, seas and marine resources. The partnership was announced by Isabella Lövin, Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden; and Peter Thomson, UN Special Envoy for the Ocean. Marc Benioff, Founder and Chairman of Salesforce.com, announced $4.5 million in funding through the Benioff Ocean Initiative to support the new initiative.

:: Tackling waste and pollution: Leaders from some of the world’s largest companies, such as Alphabet, The Coca Cola Company, Royal Philips and Unilever, teamed up with the governments of Indonesia, Nigeria, the People’s Republic of China and Rwanda and international organizations to form the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE). The platform aims to tackle issues including electronic waste and plastics pollution by going beyond the 9% of waste that is currently cycled back into the economy after use.

:: Unlocking nature’s value: A new plan was announced to mimic the success of the human genome map by sequencing the DNA of all life on earth. Under the auspices of the Forum’s Fourth Industrial Revolution for the Earth initiative, two projects, the Earth Bio-Genome Project (EBP) and the Earth Bank of Codes will, if successful, help avert extinction as well as tackle bio-piracy and habitat loss by unlocking value from nature’s biological and biomimetic assets.

:: Making meat sustainable: A new Forum initiative, Meat: The Future will identify ways to transform the future of meat and protein production to deliver safe, affordable and sustainable protein in the face of rapidly growing global demand.

:: Tackling the cyber threat: In response to the fastest-emerging global risk of our times, the Forum announced the launch of a Global Centre for Cybersecurity, a multistakeholder platform aimed at creating a safe operating environment for new technologies like artificial intelligence, robotics, drones, autonomous vehicles and the internet of things.

::Ethical science: The Forum’s community of Young Scientists launched an interdisciplinary Code of Ethics for Researchers aimed at safeguarding high standards of behaviour and clarifying social norms to allow scientists to operate independently.

Handbook on Children Recruited and Exploited by Terrorist and Violent Extremist Groups: The Role of the Justice System

Human Rights – Children

Handbook on Children Recruited and Exploited by Terrorist and Violent Extremist Groups: The Role of the Justice System
UNODC 2017 :: 160 pages
PDF: http://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/Child-Victims/Handbook_on_Children_Recruited_and_Exploited_by_Terrorist_and_Violent_Extremist_Groups_the_Role_of_the_Justice_System.E.pdf

Old and new challenges
The use of children in hostilities is not a new phenomenon. Nearly 20 years ago, the report of the expert of the Secretary-General on the impact of armed conflict on children, known as the Machel Report,8 brought to international attention the extent and consequences of recruitment and use of children by armed forces and armed groups. Even today, the recruitment of children largely takes place in situations of conflict, though terrorist and violent extremist groups are by no means the only ones perpetrating such grave violations against children.

The involvement of terrorist and violent extremist groups entails numerous new challenges for
States. First, prevention has become particularly complex, as evidenced by the innovative methods of propaganda and recruitment employed specifically by such groups. This is a primary concern to efforts to effectively tackle a security threat while, at the same time, limiting the victimization of such children.

Secondly, because of their association with terrorism-related activities, which are classified in
international and national law as serious offences, an increasing number of children come into contact with national authorities, in particular with justice authorities. In this context, the questions range from the applicable international legal framework to the legal status of the children and the competent authorities and procedures to deal with them. Such children are commonly regarded as a security risk and subsequently exposed to further violations of their rights.

Finally, there is a lack of understanding regarding the rehabilitation and reintegration measures that can be effective in addressing the particular stigma associated with terrorism, while taking into account the extreme violence that has always characterized recruitment and exploitation of children. Also in this context, a key challenge is how to build upon the lessons learned from the reintegration of children who have been used in conflict situations and also address the specific issues related to terrorism.

The underlying concern, which is at the core of the present publication, is how States can preserve public safety and, at the same time, effectively protect the rights of the child.

The role of the justice system
In order to tackle the very complex and multifaceted phenomenon of children recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups, it is essential to count on the coordinated efforts of a variety of actors and institutions, from different systems. Even if the justice system is not the only system that has responsibilities in protecting children, its role is crucial.

The justice system is not only essential for ending impunity and ensuring accountability mechanisms, but also instrumental in promoting preventive measures to counter violence against children. While it is important to note that not all children recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups are in contact with the justice system, often actors working within that system are the first ones to have contact with those children. For this reason, they have an undeniable responsibility to protect, respect and fulfil children’s rights, to prevent revictimization and to take action to ensure that other systems (i.e. child protection, health and education) provide suitable responses.

Objective
This Handbook was developed with a view to providing coherent and consistent guidance to national authorities on the treatment of children recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups, with emphasis on the role of the justice system.

Structure of the Handbook
The Handbook contains four chapters. Chapters I-IV combine legal guidance on the relevant international legal framework with operational guidance aimed at identifying effective approaches in the different areas of intervention, overcoming practical challenges and fostering the identification and promotion of lessons learned. The case studies featured in each chapter are particularly relevant, as they provide further insight on the adaptation of general recommendations to specific national and local contexts.

Chapter I is on the prevention of child recruitment by terrorist and violent extremist groups. Following an analysis of the key motivations and methods of the groups to recruit children, the chapter focuses on the need to design and implement comprehensive prevention measures aimed at addressing violence against children in general, recruitment in particular and the role of the justice systems in such policies.

Chapter II focuses on children recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups, in particular their treatment as victims. The chapter deals with the recognition of their status as victims; safeguards aimed at fostering participation of children in criminal proceedings while preserving their safety; and their right to reparations.

The subject of chapter III is the treatment of children who have been recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups and who come in contact with the justice system for allegedly having committed terrorism-related offences. The chapter focuses on issues regarding the legal status of those children, the competent authorities and procedures to deal with them, and minimum guarantees that should inform all stages of justice proceedings.

The final chapter addresses the need to support the rehabilitation and reintegration of children in different contexts. Taking into account the diversity of the phenomenon, the chapter provides overall guidance on child-sensitive reintegration measures, focusing on issues such as the demobilization and release of children; cross-border situations; and the reintegration of children who come in contact with the justice system.

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Press Release
UNODC launches Handbook on Children Recruited and Exploited by Terrorist Groups
– UNODC launched today the Handbook on Children Recruited and Exploited by Terrorist and Violent Extremist Groups: The Role of the Justice System, the first United Nations publication on the topic. The event was attended by representatives of 48 countries.
“The world has been forced to face the reality that terrorists and violent extremist groups target children for their purposes,” said John Brandolino, UNODC’s Director of the Division for Treaty Affairs, speaking at the launch event.
In this regard, the Handbook aims at providing guidance to law- and policy-makers, as well as practitioners on the treatment of children. The publication focuses on the prevention of child recruitment; justice for children; and rehabilitation and reintegration…

How Immigrants Contribute to Developing Countries’ Economies

Migration
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How Immigrants Contribute to Developing Countries’ Economies
OECD/ILO
Published on January 24, 2018 :: 194 pages
PDF: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/4118021e.pdf?expires=1517109189&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=7E437135340119D008585ED433FE9FC4
Executive summary
With more than one-third of international migrants residing in developing countries, immigration has an increasing weight on the socioeconomic development of low- and middle-income countries. Yet, policy debate on how immigrants affect host countries often relies more on perception than evidence. A more systematic analysis on the economic impact of labour immigration in developing countries will better inform policy makers to formulate policies aiming to make the most of immigration in destination countries.

The project Assessing the Economic Contribution of Labour Migration in Developing Countries as Countries of Destination (ECLM) – carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization and co-financed by the European Union – was conceived to provide such analysis. This report synthesises the findings of the project, conducted between 2014 and 2018 in ten partner countries – Argentina, Cote d’Ivoire, Costa Rica, the Dominican
Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand –, puts them in the context of global analysis and provides evidence on the impact of labour immigration on the
development of host countries, and presents the main policy recommendations.

The contribution of immigrants to developing countries’ economies
Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the analysis in this report focuses on three main dimensions of the economic contribution of immigrants in developing countries: labour markets, economic growth and public finance.

:: Labour markets: How well immigrants are integrated into the host country’s labour market is directly linked with their economic contribution to their destination countries. Immigrants in most partner countries have higher labour force participation and employment rates than native-born workers. However, the quality of jobs immigrants take remains a concern because they often face a lack of decent work.
Does immigration affect – either positively or negatively – the labour market outcomes of native-born workers? The analysis in the ten developing countries shows that the overall impact of immigration is negligible. The results, however, are diverse and highly contextual. This is in line with the majority of research on OECD countries which finds only a small effect.

:: Economic growth: The estimated contribution of immigrants to gross domestic product (GDP) ranges from about 1% in Ghana to 19% in Cote d’Ivoire, with an average of 7%. The immigrants’ contribution to value added exceeds their population share in employment in half of the partner countries. In countries where this is not the case, the differences were small. Overall, immigration is unlikely to depress GDP per capita. The analysis on how immigration affects productivity reveals less clear results. Various research methods were employed across the countries depending on data availability.

:: Public finance: How do immigrants affect the fiscal balance and the quality of public services in developing countries? Immigrants help increase overall public revenues, but the increase may not be always sufficient to offset the public expenditures they generate. This is the case for two countries, Kyrgyzstan and Nepal, where the deficit is less than 1% of GDP. In the other seven partner countries for which data are available, the net direct fiscal impact of immigrants is positive but below 1% of GDP. Overall, immigrants’ net fiscal contribution is therefore generally positive but limited. This is in line with the available evidence for OECD countries.

More than Numbers: How migration data can deliver real-life benefits

Migration

More than Numbers: How migration data can deliver real-life benefits
Final version for World Economic Forumin Davos on 24 January 2018
International Organization for Migration (IOM) and McKinsey & Company
2018 :: 124 pages
PDF: https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/more_than_numbers.pdf
Summary
Migration is a complex global challenge. Around 258 million people are currently estimated to be residing outside their country of birth – a number that has almost tripled in the past 50 years. This has policy implications across a myriad of dimensions ranging from border management to labour market participation and integration.

Decision makers absolutely need one thing to devise appropriate policies: reliable information. Relevant, high-quality data is critical for designing, implementing and evaluating policies that can generate substantial economic, social and humanitarian benefits for countries and migrants alike.

Despite widespread consensus on the importance of data to manage migration effectively, the current availability of relevant and reliable data is still very limited. Even when data is available, it is often not used to its full potential (including new data which is being produced in abundance from digital devices). Unfortunately, the current debate focuses far too much on how to get more and better data – a technical debate for experts in the engine room of politics. This report aims to shift this debate from theory into practice. Decision makers need to be convinced of the value that migration data can deliver.

This report is intended to support decision makers in capturing concrete economic, social and humanitarian benefits in line with targets they choose to prioritize – by leveraging the data that matters.

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Press Release
Investing in Better Migration Data Could be Worth Over USD 35 Billion
01/24/18
World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland – Could better use of data help turn human mobility into an asset worth tens of billions of dollars?

That’s the finding of a study by the UN Migration Agency’s (IOM) Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), working with the McKinsey Centre for Government (MCG), being released today at Davos’ World Economic Forum.

In the new report, entitled “More than Numbers: How migration data can deliver real-life benefits”, IOM and MCG illustrate how investing in better data can help manage migration more effectively and illustrates clear examples of this.

The International Organization for Migration´s Director General William Lacy Swing explained in launching the report: “Too often, data are seen as the abstract business of experts operating in backrooms. Yet data are essential to produce real-life results such as protecting migrants in vulnerable situations, fill labour market shortages and improve integration, manage asylum procedures, ensure the humane return of migrants ordered to leave or increase remittance flows.”

“In this report, we have taken a fresh perspective on migration data and statistics, one that could benefit the entire development world. By taking a value based approach to migration data we can ensure that investment is squarely focused on impact. Ultimately, if governments want to see better outcomes they need to prioritise more relevant data, not just more data.” Said Solveigh Hieronimus, Partner at McKinsey & Company.

The report illuminates how investing in migration data can bring huge economic, social and humanitarian benefits. It provides detailed calculations of these benefits, across a range of different policy areas, and for both developed and developing countries. Looking ahead, the report provides guidance to countries interested in realising these benefits and suggests ways in which they could develop their own strategies to improve data on migration.

For example, many migrants to the European Union have skills that do not match their jobs. Using data to reduce over-qualification would increase the income of migrants in the EU by EUR 6 billion, the report calculates…

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