Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 24 January 2018 [GPEI]
:: New on http://polioeradication.org/: In one of the final strongholds of the poliovirus, vaccination coverage is improving thanks to the women working to access children.
:: In Pakistan, we documented some of the high-risk mobile children that must be visited by vaccinators during the low transmission season.
::  By expanding environmental surveillance, Afghanistan hopes to track the movement of poliovirus with more accuracy than ever before.

:: Summary of newly-reported viruses this week:
Afghanistan:  One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in Nangarhar province. One new WPV1 positive environmental sample has been reported in Kandahar province.
Pakistan: Two new WPV1 positive environmental samples have been reported, one collected from Sindh province, and one from Balochistan province.

Syria cVDPV2 outbreak situation report 31, 23 January 2018
Situation update 23 January 2018
:: No new cases of cVDPV2 were reported this week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases remains 74. The most recent case (by date of onset of paralysis) is 21 September 2017 from Boukamal district, Deir Ez-Zor governorate.
:: The first round of the second phase of the outbreak response has been completed in all governorates (Deir Ez-Zor, Homs, Hasakah and Raqqa) with vaccination activities finishing on 21 January.
:: Administrative data has been received from all areas except eastern Deir Ez-Zor.
:: Post-campaign monitoring began 21 January in all governorates.
:: Preparation for the second round (IPV) continues. Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners continue to assist.


WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 27 January 2018]
The Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syria cVDPV2 outbreak situation report 31, 23 January 2018
[See Polio above for detail]

:: WHO airlifts 200 tonnes of health supplies to Yemen
SANA’A, 18 January 2018 — The World Health Organization has delivered 200 tonnes of life-saving medicines and health supplies to Yemen. Four United Nations planes carrying the cargo landed in Sana’a Airport this week.
The shipments include essential medicines, insulin vials, antibiotics, rabies vaccines, intravenous (IV) fluids, and other medical supplies and equipment…

Nigeria set to vaccinate 25 million people, its biggest yellow fever campaign ever  24 January 2018
[See Yellow Fever below for more detail]
WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 27 January 2018]
:: Ukraine’s efforts to stop measles outbreak continue as case total increases
16 January 2018 — Measles continues to spread in Ukraine, with new cases now being reported in all oblasts and Kyiv. These cases are the latest in an expanding outbreak that affected over 3000 people and claimed the lives of 5 children and adults in 2017, according to preliminary data. The latest information from other countries in the WHO European Region also indicates a rise in cases, including large measles outbreaks affecting Greece, Italy and Romania.

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic
:: 26 Jan 2018 – Is the world becoming numb to the killing of children? – Statement by Fran Equiza, UNICEF Representative in Syria [EN/AR]

:: Deteriorating humanitarian crisis in DR Congo demands largest ever appeal
(Kinshasa, 18 January 2018) The dramatic deterioration of the humanitarian situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2017 has forced humanitarian actors to launch an appeal for USD 1.68 billion for 2018, the largest ever funding appeal for the country where 13.1 million people require humanitarian assistance.
The funding is required to urgently assist some 10.5 million Congolese people in 2018. Geographical expansion of the humanitarian needs and worsening situations in existing crisis hotspots all require a step change of the response of the international community to address life-threatening humanitarian and protection needs…

:: 20 Jan 2018  US$ 2.96 billion needed to provide life-saving assistance to 13.1 million people in Yemen in 2018 [EN/AR]

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
:: ISCG Situation Update: Rohingya Refugee Crisis, Cox’s Bazar | 21 January 2018

:: 23 Jan 2018  Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 45 | 08 – 20 January 2018
…Opening of Gaaluun bridge at Dawa river improves humanitarian access to Dawa zone.
…As part of the national plan to rehabilitate internally displaced persons in Oromia and Somali regions, the Oromia region is settling some 86,000 IDPs in 12 towns across the region.
…An ‘Alert’ released by Government and humanitarian partners estimated up to 7 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in the first half of 2018, requiring some US$895 milliON
Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

MERS-CoV [to 27 January 2018]
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia  26 January 2018
Between 9 December 2017 and 17 January 2018, the National IHR Focal Point of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reported 20 additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), including eight deaths. In addition, one death from a previously reported case was reported to WHO…
Yellow Fever  [to 27 January 2018]
:: Brazil launches world’s largest campaign with fractional-dose yellow fever vaccine
Brasilia, January 25, 2018 (PAHO) – Brazil today launched a mass immunization campaign that will deliver fractional doses of yellow fever vaccine to residents of 69 municipalities in the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The strategic plan for the campaign was developed with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It will be the world’s largest vaccination campaign, to date, using fractional doses of yellow fever vaccine.
Some 23.8 million people are expected to be vaccinated during the campaign, including 10.3 million in the state of São Paulo and 10 million in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The state of Bahia is expected to begin vaccinating on 19 February 2018 with an estimated target population of 3.3 million people to be reached with the vaccine..

:: Nigeria set to vaccinate 25 million people, its biggest yellow fever campaign ever
24 January 2018, Abuja – The Government of Nigeria will launch a mass vaccination campaign to prevent the spread of yellow fever on Thursday (January 25) with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners. More than 25 million people will be vaccinated throughout 2018, in the largest yellow fever vaccination drive in the country’s history.
The immunization plan is part of efforts to eliminate yellow fever epidemics globally by 2026. The preventive campaign will use vaccines funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and will be supported by UNICEF. It will begin on 25 January in Kogi, Kwara and Zamfara states, and then move to Borno state where the campaign will focus on camps for internally displaced persons and surrounding host communities. More than 8.6 million people will be vaccinated in the four states in the coming days.
“The goal of the Yellow Fever Preventive Mass Vaccination Campaign is to reduce yellow fever transmission by achieving 90% coverage in implementing States and Local Government Areas in line with the strategy for the Elimination of Yellow fever Epidemics by 2026,” said Dr Faisal Shuaib, Executive Director of National Primary Healthcare Development Agency…