Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Volume 17, Issue 1, February 2015
Frequency of Infectious Diseases in Immigrants in a Western European Country: A Population-Based Study
Rosa Maria Limina, Guglielmino Baitelli, Claudio Marcantoni, Loredana Covolo, Andrea Festa, Fabrizio Speziani, Francesco Vassallo, Carmelo Scarcella, Francesco Donato
The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence rates of infectious diseases in native- (Italian) and foreign-born (immigrants) populations in a North Italy area, in 2006–2010. Crude, age-specific incidence rates (IRs) and age-standardised rate ratios (SRRs) between foreign- and native-born subjects and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated. A total of 32,554 cases of infectious diseases were found (9.9 % in foreign-born subjects). The highest SRRs between foreign- and nativeborn subjects were found for tuberculosis (SRR = 27.1; 95 % CI 21.3–34.3), malaria (SRR = 21.1; 14.6–30.4), scabies (SRR = 8.5; 7.6–9.4), AIDS (SRR = 2.5; 1.8–3.4) and viral hepatitis B (SRR = 3.3; 2.1–5.2). The highest IR was found for AIDS in people from the Americas (IR = 4.57; 95 % CI 2.2–8.4), for malaria and tuberculosis in people from Africa (IR = 13.89; 11.6–16.5 and IR = 11.87; 9.8–14.3 respectively). Therefore immigrants are at a higher risk of acquiring some common infectious diseases compared to the native population in Western European countries.
Among Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccinated Persons
Joan M. Mangan, Sebastian Galindo-Gonzalez, Tracy A. Irani
Misperceptions surrounding the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine can lead some vaccinated individuals to resist being tested and treated for tuberculosis (TB). Educational messages to best explain the risk of TB to BCG-vaccinated, Hispanic persons were systematically developed and tested. First, TB program staff provided messages they considered effective. These were analyzed and validated by TB experts, and then presented in group interviews initially to foreign-born Hispanic persons with a TB diagnosis, and then persons without a prior TB diagnosis. Based on interviewees’ feedback, preferred statements were used to develop one long and three short comprehensive messages. One-on-one interviews were conducted with Hispanic persons to assess the saliency of the comprehensive educational messages. Participants preferred messages that were gain or positively-framed and explained that BCG does not confer lifelong protection against TB. Participants confirmed the messages would likely have a positive impact on patient decisions to undergo TB testing and treatment.
Understanding HPV Vaccination Among Latino Adolescent Girls in Three U.S. Regions
Beth A. Glenn, Jennifer Tsui, Gloria D. Coronado, Maria E. Fernandez, Lara S. Savas, Victoria M. Taylor, Roshan Bastani
A multi-site study was conducted to assess HPV vaccine initiation and correlates of initiation among Latina adolescents. The study was a collaboration of the CDC/NCI-funded Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network. Data were collected in 2009 from caregivers of Latina adolescents recruited from Los Angeles Country (n = 274), Washington State (Yakima Valley region; n = 90), and Texas (Houston, n = 38; Lower Rio Grande Valley, n = 42). A set of 24 survey items assessed use of the HPV vaccine and awareness, attitudes and barriers to vaccination. Moderate levels of vaccine awareness among caregivers and low uptake of the vaccine (26–37 %) among girls were observed. Attitudinal barriers such as concerns about negative effects of the vaccine on daughter’s sexual behavior, fertility, and future health were infrequently endorsed. Efforts to understand regional similarities and differences may help inform interventions