The Lancet Commissions :: The legal determinants of health: harnessing the power of law for global health and sustainable development

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The Lancet
May 04, 2019 Volume 393Number 10183p1773-1910
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

The Lancet Commissions
The legal determinants of health: harnessing the power of law for global health and sustainable development
Lawrence O Gostin, John T Monahan, Jenny Kaldor, Mary DeBartolo, Eric A Friedman, Katie Gottschalk, Susan C Kim, Ala Alwan, Agnes Binagwaho, Gian Luca Burci, Luisa Cabal, Katherine DeLand, Timothy Grant Evans, Eric Goosby, Sara Hossain, Howard Koh, Gorik Ooms, Mirta Roses Periago, Rodrigo Uprimny, Alicia Ely Yamin
Key messages
1 Law affects global health in multiple ways, by structuring, perpetuating, and mediating the social determinants of health.
2 Although law has been central to major public health achievements in the past, its capacity to advance global health with justice remains substantially underutilised, particularly among professionals in the fields of health and science.
3 The right to health, a legally binding norm, provides a foundation for advancing global health with justice and should underpin health-related legal reforms.
4 Every human being has a right to affordable, high quality health services. By embedding equity and accountability in all health systems, the law and the rule of law can achieve health coverage that is truly universal—delivering the Sustainable Development Goals’ promise to leave no one behind.
5 Although the ability to enforce compliance with international legal obligations is generally limited, and largely dependent on power dynamics and political will, creative mechanisms can foster compliance and help establish impetus for action.
6 Law can address the pressing health concerns of the 21st century, across diverse areas. From tobacco control, non-communicable diseases, and road safety, to health emergencies, law can implement fair, evidence-based interventions to save lives. The global health community should champion evidence-based legal interventions and build the research case for legal action.
7 Laws that stigmatise or discriminate against marginalised populations are especially harmful and exacerbate health disparities. The global health community must oppose laws that undermine the right to health and to equity.
8 To realise the full potential of law to advance global health with justice, the global health community should build legal capacity and establish a sustained dialogue with legislators, regulators, judges, civil society, and researchers.