Emergencies

Emergencies
 
POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 10 July 2018 [GPEI]
:: A Disease Outbreak News (DON) notification was issued on 10 July on the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s three concurrent circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks.
:: Papua New Guinea prepares for the launch of large-scale immunization campaigns in Morobe, Madang and Eastern Highlands provinces, set to commence next week..

Summary of new cases this week:
Afghanistan:
:: Last week’s advance notification of one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in Nad-e-Ali district, Helmand province, has been confirmed. The case had onset of paralysis on 1 June. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 (in Afghanistan) to nine.
:: A sub-national immunization days campaign aiming to reach 6.4 million children under five years of age in 225 high risk districts of 27 provinces, primarily in the southern and eastern parts of the country including Kabul city, has concluded.
:: Two new WPV1 positive environmental samples have been reported: one in Kandahar City, Kandahar province, and one in Jalalabad, Nangarhar province.
Pakistan:
:: Four new WPV1 positive environmental samples have been reported this week: one in Peshawar and one in Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (both 26 June), one in Karachi, Sindh province (23 June), and one in Islamabad, Punjab province (24 June).
Somalia:
:: An advance notification has been confirmed of one new cVDPV2 positive contact in Somalia.

DONs
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 – Democratic Republic of the Congo
10 July 2018
WHO risk assessment
WHO assessed the overall public health risk at the national level to be very high and the risk of international spread to be high. This risk is magnified by known population movements between the affected area of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Central African Republic and South Sudan, and the upcoming rainy season which is associated with increased intensity of virus transmission.
The detection of cVDPV2s underscores the importance of maintaining high routine vaccination coverage everywhere to minimize the risk and consequences of any poliovirus circulation. These events also underscore the risk posed by any low-level transmission of the virus. A robust outbreak response is needed to rapidly stop circulation and ensure sufficient vaccination coverage in the affected areas to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. WHO will continue to evaluate the epidemiological situation and outbreak response measures being implemented…

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WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 14 Jul 2018]
The Syrian Arab Republic
:: Southern Syrian Arab Republic Health Cluster report pdf, 82kb  9 – 12 July 2018
:: WHO delivers over 17 tons of life-saving medicines and medical equipment to the newly accessible city of Douma  7 July 2018

Iraq  – No new announcements identified
Nigeria  – No new announcements identified
South Sudan  – No new announcements identified
Yemen  – No new announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 14 Jul 2018]
[Several emergency pages were not available at inquiry]
Cameroon  – No new announcements identified
Central African Republic  No new announcements identified.
Democratic Republic of the Congo  No new announcements identified
Ethiopia  No new announcements identified.
LibyaNo new announcements identified.
Myanmar  – No new announcements identified
Niger  – No new announcements identified.
UkraineNo new announcements identified.

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic 
:: Syrian Arab Republic: Dar’a, Quneitra, As-Sweida Situation Report No. 2 as of 11 July 2018
Published on 11 Jul 2018
 
Yemen
:: Yemen Humanitarian Update Covering 12 June – 9 July 2018 | Issue 20
Published on 10 Jul 2018

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia  – No new announcements identified.
Somalia   – No new announcements identified.

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Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

EBOLA/EVD  [to 14 Jul 2018]
http://www.who.int/ebola/en/
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   6 July 2018
The Ministry of Health and WHO continue to closely monitor the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Contact tracing activities concluded on 27 June after the last people with potential exposure to the virus completed their 21-day follow-up without developing symptoms. Over 20 000 visits to contacts have been conducted by the field team throughout the outbreak.
On 12 June, the last confirmed Ebola virus disease patient in Équateur Province was discharged from an Ebola treatment centre, following two negative tests on serial laboratory specimens. Before the outbreak can be declared over, a period of 42 days (two incubation periods) following the last possible exposure to a confirmed case must elapse without any new confirmed cases being detected. Until this milestone is reached, it is critical to maintain all key response pillars, including intensive surveillance to rapidly detect and respond to any resurgence.
In light of progress in the response, WHO has revised the risk assessment for this outbreak…
there remains a risk of resurgence from potentially undetected transmission chains and possible sexual transmission of the virus by male survivors. It is therefore, critical to maintain all key response pillars until the end of the outbreak is declared. Strengthened surveillance mechanisms and a survivor monitoring program are in place to mitigate, rapidly detect and respond to respond to such events. Based on these factors, WHO considers the public health risk to be moderate at the national level.
In the absence of ongoing transmission, the probability of exported cases is low and diminishing, and has been further mitigated by the undertaking of preparedness activities and establishment of contingency plans in neighbouring countries. WHO has assessed the public health risk to be low at the regional and global levels…