GRID 2018: Global Report on Internal Displacement
IDMC – Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
IDMC’s work is made possible thanks to the dedicated and generous support of the following funding partners: the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the United States Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Sweden’s International Development Cooperation Agency, the European Commission, the International Organization for Migration, Liechtenstein’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Federal Foreign Office of Germany.
May 2018 :: 120 pages
:: 30.6 million new internal displacements associated with conflict and disasters were recorded in 2017 across 143 countries and territories.
:: The ten worst-affected countries – China, the Philippines, Syria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Cuba, the United States, India, Iraq, Somalia and Ethiopia – accounted for more than a million new displacements each.
:: The number of new displacements associated with conflict and violence almost doubled, from 6.9 million in 2016 to 11.8 million in 2017. Syria, DRC and Iraq together accounted for more than half of the global figure.
:: A total of 40 million people remained internally displaced by conflict as of the end of 2017. Of the people reported as having returned, relocated or locally integrated during the year, around 8.5 million in 23 countries may not have found truly durable solutions, and could still be displaced. Counting them would bring the global total to 48.5 million people currently displaced.
:: 18.8 million new internal displacements associated with disasters were recorded in 135 countries and territories. Weather-related hazards triggered the vast majority, with floods accounting for 8.6 million and storms 7.5 million. China, Philippines, Cuba and the United States were the worst affected.
:: The global distribution of internal displacement mirrors the patterns of previous years. Most conflict displacement took place in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. Disaster displacement was prevalent in East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia and the Americas, regions with high disaster risk because of high levels of exposure and vulnerability.
:: Many displacement situations, such as the complex emergencies in DRC, Somalia and Yemen, were characterised by high levels of violence and vulnerability. New waves of violence in the Central African Republic, Ethiopia, El Salvador and Somalia brought them back among the most-affected countries. Peacebuilding initiatives and ceasefires failed to prevent new displacement in Colombia, Syria and Ukraine.
:: The majority of returns took place to and in countries with active armed conflict and unresolved displacement crises. Nigeria, Somalia and Afghanistan were among the countries where many of those returning home, whether refugees or IDPs, found themselves internally displaced again.
:: Some of the highest levels of displacement associated with disasters came about as a result of tropical cyclones. Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria broke several records in the Atlantic and Caribbean, and a series of typhoons in South and East Asia and Pacific displaced large numbers of people throughout the year.
:: Displacement in urban settings, particularly in Iraq and Syria, brought specific challenges in terms of humanitarian access, the delivery of basic services and heightened vulnerabilities for displaced people.
:: IDMC’s latest estimates demonstrate a collective failure to address existing internal displacement and to reduce the risk of future displacement.
:: Since the publication of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement in 1998, programmes and policies to protect and assist IDPs have not been sufficient to cope with, much less reduce, the growing number of new displacements or the cumulative number of IDPs over time. A new approach is essential.
:: Beyond the need to improve humanitarian responses to these crises, more investments must be made at the national and international levels in sustainable development, peacebuilding, addressing the impacts of climate change and disaster risk reduction.
:: Failure to address long-term displacement has the potential to undermine the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and progress on other international agreements.
:: Countries facing internal displacement must drive policymaking. Over the coming years, countries will have to better account for IDPs and displacement risk, and make addressing internal displacement an integral part of development planning and governance at both the local and national level.
:: Authority and accountability should lie with the highest levels of government, combined with the devolution of resources and decision-making power to local authorities. To enable this, national capacity for monitoring, planning and implementation needs to be systematically built and maintained.
:: To make genuine progress at the national, regional and international levels, there needs to be constructive and open dialogue on internal displacement. This must be led by countries impacted by the issue, with the support of international partners, and in line with their national priorities and realities.