Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy – World Bank Group

Education/Literacy – Disability Gap

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THE PRICE OF EXCLUSION: DISABILITY AND EDUCATION
Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy
World Bank Group: Male, Chata; Wodon, Quentin T..
2017/12/01 :: 16 pages
PDF: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/396291511988894028/pdf/121762-WorldBank-GapsInEdAttainmentLiteracy-Brief-WebReady-v5.pdf
Abstract
This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various typesof disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implementedusing the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.

KEY MESSAGES
This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various types of disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implemented using the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.

Key findings are as follows:
:: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for ensuring inclusive and quality education for
all and promoting lifelong learning (Goal 4). The SDGs explicitly mention equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities. Unfortunately, gaps in education outcomes between children with and without disabilities have been increasing over time.

:: For children without disabilities, completion rates at the primary level have increased substantially over the last few decades. Smaller gains have been observed for children with disabilities. As a result, the gap in primary completion rates between children with and without
disabilities has increased over time from a few percentage points a few decades ago to 17.6 points for boys and 15.4 points for girls in the latest available census data.

:: Many children with disabilities are never enrolled in school. Among children aged 11, the likelihood of having ever enrolled in school was 13 percentage points lower for children with disabilities versus children without disabilities at the time of the latest available census data. As for primary education, the disability gap in ever enrolling has increased over time.

:: Large gains in secondary completion rates have also been achieved for boys and girls without disabilities, but gains are again smaller for children with disabilities, leading to disability gaps in completion rates of 14.5 points for boys and 10.4 points for girls.

:: The last indicator considered for the analysis of trends over time is literacy. In part, as a result of differentiated trends in educational attainment by disability status, the disability gaps for literacy also grew over time, reaching 16.2 points for boys and 15.5 points for girls.

:: When looking through regression analysis at the marginal effects of exclusion associated with disabilities, findings are similar to the results from simple statistical comparisons. Across the 19 countries, the average reductions at the margin for children with disabilities in the probabilities of ever enrolling in school, completing primary schooling, completing secondary schooling, and being literate are estimated at 11.9 points, 16.8 points, 13.9 points, and 16.4 points respectively.

:: The marginal effects on education outcomes of exclusion related to disabilities are often larger than the effects of other child or household characteristics. For example, the marginal effect of a disability is often larger than that of the quintile of wealth of the child’s household.

:: Overall, the analysis demonstrates that children with disabilities are being left behind by global efforts to improve education opportunities for all. The rising gaps between children with and without disabilities in developing countries call for stronger policies and interventions to achieve the target of inclusive education adopted under the Sustainable Development Goals.

The 19 countries included in the report are: Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Malawi, Mexico, Mozambique, Peru, South Africa, South Sudan, Vietnam, and Zambia.

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Press Release
Education: Children with disabilities are being left behind, says World Bank/GPE report
WASHINGTON, December 1, 2017 – Children with disabilities are being left behind by global efforts to improve education opportunities for all, as gaps between children with and without disabilities have increased dramatically in developing countries, according to new research from the World Bank and the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) released ahead of the International Day of Persons with Disabilities.

The study, Disability Gaps in Educational Attainment and Literacy, found that primary school completion for children with disabilities in 19 developing countries* is just 48 percent, and as many as three in ten children with disabilities have never been in school. The study, based on analysis of census data, also found that literacy rates and secondary school completion lag considerably behind: Only six in ten children with disabilities can read and write, and only a third complete secondary school….