Human Rights – Quarterly Volume 38, Number 4, November 2016

Human Rights Quarterly
Volume 38, Number 4, November 2016
http://muse.jhu.edu/issue/35304

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Articles
Human Rights, Gender, and Infectious Disease: From HIV/AIDS to Ebola
pp. 993-1021
Lara Stemple, Portia Karegeya, Sofia Gruskin
ABSTRACT:
Two global health crises, HIV/AIDS and Ebola, have drawn legal and political attention to the fact that infectious disease does not affect all citizens of the globe equally. Of the many factors operating to render some more vulnerable than others, human rights and gender equality play vital roles, as the international community learned in response to HIV/AIDS. An examination of the recent Ebola outbreak demonstrates once again that the promotion and protection of human rights, inclusive of a gender perspective, should underpin all interventions from the outset, so as to more effectively respond to Ebola and all public health crises.
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Articles
The Criminal Community of Victims and Perpetrators: Cognitive Foundations of Citizen Detachment From Organized Violence in Mexico
pp. 1038-1069
Andreas Schedler
ABSTRACT:
After its successful transition to democracy, Mexico has experienced an epidemic of organized societal violence known as the drug war that, to date, has caused well over 100,000 casualties. Most of this violence has been consigned to oblivion, without proper investigation or prosecution. Victims have been organizing and protesting, yet ordinary citizens have remained quiet, except for two short lived waves of nationwide protest. As I hypothesize, a primary reason for their acquiescence is cognitive. The framing of organized violence as a self-contained war among criminals (“bounded violence”) erodes the attitudinal foundation of citizen solidarity and sympathy with the victims of injustice. I explore the cognitive foundations of citizen attitudes towards victims on the basis of original data from the Mexican 2013 National Survey on Organized Violence. Logistic regression analysis confirms the expected framing effect. Even when controlling for alternative explanations, such as personal proximity to violence and social proximity to its victims, the notion of bounded violence within a criminal community induces citizens to view its victims with indifference.
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Articles
United States Military Assistance and Human Rights
pp. 1070-1101
Wayne Sandholtz
ABSTRACT:
Since the 1970s, US law has made military assistance conditional on the human rights record of recipient governments. The prospect of receiving US military aid would, in principle, create an incentive for states to respect rights. This study assesses whether US military aid has exercised the hoped-for positive influence on human rights in recipient countries, a question for which no published research exists. The analysis of data from over 150 countries covering thirty years indicates that US military assistance is associated with worse performance on human rights.
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Articles
Introduction to the Societal Violence Scale: Physical Integrity Rights Violations and Nonstate Actors
pp. 1102-1108
Linda Cornett, Peter Haschke, Mark Gibney
ABSTRACT:
Measures of physical integrity rights violations typically focus on abuses by state actors. However, nonstate actors also represent a grave threat to personal security. This article introduces the Societal Violence Scale (SVS) which uses the US State Department Human Rights reports as a basis for developing a new scale of physical integrity rights abuses by nonstate actors to gain a more comprehensive, but at the same time disaggregated, picture of human security threats across the globe.

Measles outbreak response vaccination in the Federated States of Micronesia

International Journal of Epidemiology
Volume 45 Issue 5 October 2016
http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

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Photo Essays
Measles outbreak response vaccination in the Federated States of Micronesia
Sameer V Gopalani, Louisa Helgenberger, Carter Apaisam, Spencer Donre, Keyleen Takiri, Jocelyne Charley, Anamaria Yomai, Peter Judicpa, Naoki Nakazono, Eliaser Johnson, Eleanor Setik, Livinson Taulung, Augustus Elias, and Lisa Barrow-Kohler
Int. J. Epidemiol. (2016) 45 (5): 1394-1400 doi:10.1093/ije/dyw111
Extract
Measles is an acute, highly infectious, viral disease transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosolized droplet nuclei.1 It is characterized by fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and generalized maculopapular rash typical of the disease (Figure 1).
After 20 years with no reported measles cases, a widespread outbreak occurred in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), an Oceanic island nation just north of the Equator.2 From February to August 2014, a multi-state outbreak affected three of the four FSM states. As part of a systematic outbreak-response following the first laboratory-confirmed case of measles, an emergency mass vaccination campaign was launched successively in each FSM state, to interrupt transmission and contain the outbreak.
Vaccinating the target population of 82 472—80% of the national population—required concerted collaborative efforts of FSM state and national immunization programmes with support from all three levels of government and international …

Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

Journal of Global Infectious Diseases (JGID)
October-December 2016 Volume 8 | Issue 4 Page Nos. 127-162
http://www.jgid.org/currentissue.asp?sabs=n

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EXPERT RECOMMENDATIONS
Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

Dilip Mathai, Abul Khair Mohammad Shamsuzzaman, Ahrar Ahmed Feroz, Amin R Virani, Ashfaq Hasan, KL Ravi Kumar, Khalid Ansari, Khandaker ATM Forhad Hossain, Mahesh Marda, MA Wahab Zubair, Mohammed Mukarram Ali, N Ashraf, Riyaz Basha, Shaeq Mirza, Shafeeq Ahmed, Shamim Akhtar, Syed Mustafa Ashraf, Zahirul Haque
DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.193749
Abstract
Respiratory tract infections are prevalent among Hajj pilgrims with pneumonia being a leading cause of hospitalization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen isolated from patients with pneumonia and respiratory tract infections during Hajj. There is a significant burden of pneumococcal disease in India, which can be prevented. Guidelines for preventive measures and adult immunization have been published in India, but the implementation of the guidelines is low. Data from Bangladesh are available about significant mortality due to respiratory infections; however, literature regarding guidelines for adult immunization is limited. There is a need for extensive awareness programs across India and Bangladesh. Hence, there was a general consensus about the necessity for a rapid and urgent implementation of measures to prevent respiratory infections in pilgrims traveling to Hajj. About ten countries have developed recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in Hajj pilgrims: France, the USA, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the UAE (Dubai Health Authority), Singapore, Malaysia, Egypt, and Indonesia. At any given point whether it is Hajj or Umrah, more than a million people are present in the holy places of Mecca and Madina. Therefore, the preventive measures taken for Hajj apply for Umrah as well. This document puts forward the consensus recommendations by a group of twenty doctors following a closed-door discussion based on the scientific evidence available for India and Bangladesh regarding the prevention of respiratory tract infections in Hajj pilgrims.

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management – Volume 6 Issue 3 2016

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Volume 6 Issue 3 2016
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/toc/jhlscm/6/2

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Type: Research paper
Technology Innovation and Big Data for Humanitarian Operations
Tina Comes

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Drivers of government restrictions on humanitarian supply chains: an exploratory study
Type: Case study
Nathan Kunz , Gerald Reiner
Abstract
Purpose
Foreign governments do not always welcome international humanitarian organizations responding to a disaster in their country. Many governments even impose restrictions on humanitarian supply chains through import barriers, travel restrictions or excessive bureaucracy. We analyze these restrictions and try to identify the government characteristics that best explain the tendency to impose such restrictions.
Design/methodology/approach
Through a multiple case study among four international humanitarian organizations we identify and analyze the restrictions imposed on humanitarian supply chains in 143 different programs. We compare the average number of restrictions per country with different governmental and socio-economic situational factors.
Findings
We find that state fragility, a combination of government ineffectiveness and illegitimacy, is the characteristic that best explains the tendency of a government to impose restrictions on humanitarian supply chains.
Practical implications
Knowing that fragile states tend to impose a high number of restrictions helps humanitarian organizations to prepare adequately before entering a country with a fragile government. The organization can for example anticipate possible concerns and establish trust with the government. Commercial companies starting to do business in such country can learn from this knowledge.
Originality/value
Multiple studies have mentioned the strong impact of governments on humanitarian supply chains, but no paper has yet analyzed this problem in detail. Our paper is the first to identify the characteristics that explain the number of restrictions governments impose on humanitarian supply chains, and what humanitarian organizations can do to address them.

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Multi objective optimization for humanitarian logistics operations through the use of mobile technologies
Type: Technical paper
Marco Antonio Serrato-Garcia , Jaime Mora-Vargas , Roman Tomas Murillo
Abstract
Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a multiobjective optimization model and information system based on mobile technology, to support decision-making in humanitarian logistics operations.
Design/methodology/approach
The trade-off between economic and social (deprivation) costs faced by governmental and nongovernmental organizations involved in humanitarian logistics operations is modeled through a Pareto frontier analysis, which is obtained from a multiobjective optimization model. Such analysis is supported on an information system based on mobile technology.
Findings
Results show useful managerial insights for decision-makers by considering both economic and social costs associated to humanitarian logistics operations. Such insights include the importance of timely and accurate information shared through mobile technology.
Research limitations/implications
This research presents a multiobjective approach that considers social costs, which are modeled through deprivation functions. The authors suggest that a future nonlinear approach be also considered, since there will be instances where the deprivation cost is a nonlinear function throughout time. Also, the model and information system developed may not be suitable for other humanitarian aid instances, considering the specific characteristics of the events considered on this research.
Practical implications
The inclusion of several types of goods, vehicles, collecting points off the ground, distributions points on the ground, available roads after a disaster took place, as well as volume and weight constraints faced under these scenarios, are considered.
Originality/value
A numerical illustration in the Latin American context is presented, the model and information system developed can be used in other developing countries or regions that face similar challenges towards humanitarian logistics operations.

The Lancet – Nov 12, 2016 Volume 388 Number 10058

The Lancet
Nov 12, 2016 Volume 388 Number 10058 p2323-2448
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

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Editorial
Brexit’s effect on access to new medicines
The Lancet

Articles
Dissonant health transition in the states of Mexico, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
Héctor Gómez-Dantés, Nancy Fullman, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Blair Darney, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Juan A Rivera, Simon Barquera, Eduardo González-Pier, Tania Aburto-Soto, Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Carolina Batis, Guilherme Borges, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano-Rincón, Alejandra de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra G Contreras-Manzano, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Vanessa V de la Cruz-Gongora, Jose L Diaz-Ortega, María de Lourdes García-García, Armando Garcia-Guerra, Teresita González de Cossío, Luz D González-Castell, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Marta C Hijar-Medina, Alejandra Jauregui, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Catalina Medina-Garcia, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Julio C Montañez, Pablo Montero, Alejandra Montoya, Grea L Moreno-Banda, Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Amado D Quezada, Vesta L Richardson-López-Collada, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Maria J Ríos Blancas, Christian Razo-Garcia, Martha P Romero Mendoza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Luz M Sánchez-Romero, Astrid Schilmann, Edson Servan-Mori, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Haidong Wang, Theo Vos, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano
Summary
Background
Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological transition models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health transition than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur. This study offers a state-level quantification of disease burden and risk factor attribution in Mexico for the first time.
Methods
We extracted data from GBD 2013 to assess mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) in Mexico and its 32 states, along with eight comparator countries in the Americas. States were grouped by Marginalisation Index scores to compare subnational burden along a socioeconomic dimension. We split extracted data by state and applied GBD methods to generate estimates of burden, and attributable burden due to behavioural, metabolic, and environmental or occupational risks. We present results for 306 causes, 2337 sequelae, and 79 risk factors.
Findings
From 1990 to 2013, life expectancy from birth in Mexico increased by 3·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 3·1–3·8), from 72·1 years (71·8–72·3) to 75·5 years (75·3–75·7), and these gains were more pronounced in states with high marginalisation. Nationally, age-standardised death rates fell 13·3% (11·9–14·6%) since 1990, but state-level reductions for all-cause mortality varied and gaps between life expectancy and years lived in full health, as measured by HALE, widened in several states. Progress in women’s life expectancy exceeded that of men, in whom negligible improvements were observed since 2000. For many states, this trend corresponded with rising YLL rates from interpersonal violence and chronic kidney disease. Nationally, age-standardised YLL rates for diarrhoeal diseases and protein-energy malnutrition markedly decreased, ranking Mexico well above comparator countries. However, amid Mexico’s progress against communicable diseases, chronic kidney disease burden rapidly climbed, with age-standardised YLL and DALY rates increasing more than 130% by 2013. For women, DALY rates from breast cancer also increased since 1990, rising 12·1% (4·6–23·1%). In 2013, the leading five causes of DALYs were diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, low back and neck pain, and depressive disorders; the latter three were not among the leading five causes in 1990, further underscoring Mexico’s rapid epidemiological transition. Leading risk factors for disease burden in 1990, such as undernutrition, were replaced by high fasting plasma glucose and high body-mass index by 2013. Attributable burden due to dietary risks also increased, accounting for more than 10% of DALYs in 2013.
Interpretation
Mexico achieved sizeable reductions in burden due to several causes, such as diarrhoeal diseases, and risks factors, such as undernutrition and poor sanitation, which were mainly associated with maternal and child health interventions. Yet rising adult mortality rates from chronic kidney disease, diabetes, cirrhosis, and, since 2000, interpersonal violence drove deteriorating health outcomes, particularly in men. Although state inequalities from communicable diseases narrowed over time, non-communicable diseases and injury burdens varied markedly at local levels. The dissonance with which Mexico and its 32 states are experiencing epidemiological transitions might strain health-system responsiveness and performance, which stresses the importance of timely, evidence-informed health policies and programmes linked to the health needs of each state.
Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.

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Viewpoint
Assessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crisesAssessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises
Peter Sands, Anas El Turabi, Philip A Saynisch, Victor J Dzau
Summary
Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund’s Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks.

Improving Access to Child Health Care in Indonesia Through Community Case Management

Maternal and Child Health Journal
Volume 20, Issue 11, November 2016
http://link.springer.com/journal/10995/20/11/page/1

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From the Field
Improving Access to Child Health Care in Indonesia Through Community Case Management
Agus Setiawan, Denise Dignam, Cheryl Waters…
Abstract
Objectives In order to reduce infant mortality in Indonesia, community case management (CCM) was introduced. CCM is a community-based service delivery model to improve children’s wellness and longevity, involving the delivery of lifesaving, curative interventions to address common childhood illnesses, particularly where there are limited facility-based services. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigated the implementation of CCM in the Kutai Timur district, East Kalimantan Indonesia from the perspective of mothers who received care. Methods Seven mothers and health workers were observed during a consultation and these mothers were interviewed in their home weeks after delivery. Field notes and the interview transcriptions were analysed thematically. Findings Mothers reported that their access to care had improved, along with an increase in their knowledge of infant danger signs and when to seek care. Family compliance with care plans was also found to have improved. Mothers expressed satisfaction with the care provided under the CCM model. The mothers expressed a need for a nurse or midwife to be posted in each village, preferably someone from that village. However two mothers did not wish their children to receive health interventions as they did not believe these to be culturally appropriate. Conclusion CCM is seen by rural Indonesian mothers to be a helpful model of care in terms of increasing access to health care and the uptake of lifesaving interventions for sick children. However there is a need to modify the program to demonstrate cultural sensitivity and meet cultural needs of the target population. While CCM is a potentially effective model of care, further integrative strategies are required to embed this model into maternal and child health service delivery.

PLoS Medicine (Accessed 12 November 2016)

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 12 November 2016)

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Perspective
Three Steps to Improve Management of Noncommunicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises
Kiran Jobanputra, Philippa Boulle, Bayard Roberts, Pablo Perel
| published 08 Nov 2016 PLOS Medicine
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002180
Initial text
Treatment of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is particularly challenging in settings affected by humanitarian crises, where insecurity and damaged health systems reduce access to treatment. While a United Nations (UN) Political Declaration and a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan recognise the significant contribution of NCDs to global morbidity and mortality [1, 2], the problem of NCDs during emergencies and in humanitarian response has been underrecognised [3]. The evidence base is negligible: a systematic review on the effectiveness of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian settings found just eight studies published over the last 35 years, four of which came from the same refugee camp in Jordan [4]. Humanitarian guidelines (e.g., Sphere) provide scant information on NCDs [5], while leading international NCD guidelines are based on evidence from resource-rich settings and adapted to fit stable, resource-constrained settings [6].

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Research Article
Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study
Agaba Katureebe, Kate Zinszer, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Elijah Kakande, Katia Charland, Ruth Kigozi, Maxwell Kilama, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Henry Mawejje, Arthur Mpimbaza, Henry Katamba, Martin J. Donnelly, Philip J. Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Steve W. Lindsay, Sarah G. Staedke, David L. Smith, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey
| published 08 Nov 2016 PLOS Medicine
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002167

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Accessed 12 November 2016)

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 12 November 2016)

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Research Article
Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City
Taranum Ruba Siddiqui, Saima Ghazal, Safia Bibi, Waquaruddin Ahmed, Shaimuna Fareeha Sajjad
Research Article | published 10 Nov 2016 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005129

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Viewpoints
Zika Virus May Affect the Universal Two-Child Policy: A New Challenge for China
Pengcheng Zhou, Juan Wang, Yixiang Zheng, Rongrong Zhou, Xue-Gong Fan
| published 10 Nov 2016 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004984

PLoS One [Accessed 12 November 2016]

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 12 November 2016]

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Research Article
Differences in Influenza Vaccination Coverage between Adult Immigrants and Italian Citizens at Risk for Influenza-Related Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study
Massimo Fabiani, Flavia Riccardo, Anteo Di Napoli, Lidia Gargiulo, Silvia Declich, Alessio Petrelli
Research Article | published 10 Nov 2016 PLOS ONE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166517

Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso, 2011–2013
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M. Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangare, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Hema-Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Soufian Sanou, Absatou Ky Ba, Ryan T. Novak, Chris Van Beneden, MenAfriNet Consortium
Research Article | published 10 Nov 2016 PLOS ONE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166384

Pneumococcal Carriage in Children under Five Years in Uganda-Will Present Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Be Appropriate?
Ann Lindstrand, Joan Kalyango, Tobias Alfvén, Jessica Darenberg, Daniel Kadobera, Freddie Bwanga, Stefan Peterson, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Karin Källander
Research Article | published 09 Nov 2016 PLOS ONE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166018

Research Article
The Effects of Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme on Maternal and Infant Health Care Utilization
Igna Bonfrer, Lyn Breebaart, Ellen Van de Poel
| published 11 Nov 2016 PLOS ONE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165623

Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/

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Sackler Colloquium on Coupled Human and Environmental Systems – Social Sciences – Economic Sciences – Social Sciences – Sustainability Science:
Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation
Scott Barrett
PNAS 2016 ; published ahead of print November 7, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1604989113
Abstract
The fates of “transboundary” environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a “tragedy of the commons,” shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states’ behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states’ self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

For blacks in America, the gap in neighborhood poverty has declined faster than segregation

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/

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Social Sciences – Social Sciences:
For blacks in America, the gap in neighborhood poverty has declined faster than segregation
Glenn Firebaugh and Francesco Acciai
PNAS 2016 ; published ahead of print November 7, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1607220113
Significance
Racial inequality in America persists in part because of racial differences in exposure to adverse neighborhood environments. Blacks in particular are significantly more likely than other Americans to live in high-poverty neighborhoods—neighborhoods characterized by poor schools and limited access to healthcare, jobs, and beneficial social networks—resulting in inequality of opportunity, as life chances are diminished for residents of such neighborhoods. In addition, the greater exposure to crime, noise, and congestion implies a lower quality of life, on average, for black Americans. Because black neighborhood disadvantage results in inequality of life chances based on race, it is important to determine the direction, pace, and sources of change in black–nonblack differences in neighborhood poverty in America.
Abstract
Black residential segregation has been declining in the United States. That accomplishment rings hollow, however, if blacks continue to live in much poorer neighborhoods than other Americans. This study uses census data for all US metropolitan areas in 1980 and 2010 to compare decline in the neighborhood poverty gap between blacks and other Americans with decline in the residential segregation of blacks. We find that both declines resulted primarily from narrowing differences between blacks and whites as opposed to narrowing differences between blacks and Hispanics or blacks and Asians. Because black–white differences in neighborhood poverty declined much faster than black–white segregation, the neighborhood poverty disadvantage of blacks declined faster than black segregation—a noteworthy finding because the narrowing of the racial gap in neighborhood poverty for blacks has gone largely unnoticed. Further analysis reveals that the narrowing of the gap was produced by change in both the medians and shapes of the distribution of poverty across the neighborhoods where blacks, whites, Hispanics, and Asians reside.

Science -11 November 2016 Vol 354, Issue 6313

Science
11 November 2016 Vol 354, Issue 6313
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

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Editorial
Who should direct WHO?
By David L. Heymann
Science11 Nov 2016 : 685
Summary
Last week, member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) advanced another step in the nearly 1-year rigorous process of selecting its next director-general. Candidates for the position presented their vision of international health work and the role of this global health body. Having worked at WHO in a number of capacities in the area of infectious diseases, I know well that international health covers a wide breadth of issues. Add to that noncommunicable diseases and matters such as intellectual property and universal health coverage, and it becomes clear that the next director-general must be a jack of all trades, but also a master of one—leadership in public health. Leadership in this role is about conceiving and articulating a vision, staying faithful to that vision in the face of undue influence, and effectively engaging with not only governments, but with all stakeholders to gain their support and enable the vision to be realized.

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Policy Forum
Precaution and governance of emerging technologies
By Gregory E. Kaebnick, Elizabeth Heitman, James P. Collins, Jason A. Delborne, Wayne G. Landis, Keegan Sawyer, Lisa A. Taneyhill, David E. Winickoff
Science11 Nov 2016 : 710-711 Restricted Access
Precaution can be consistent with support of science
Summary
Precautionary approaches to governance of emerging technology call for constraints on the use of technology whose outcomes include potential harms and are characterized by high levels of complexity and uncertainty. Although articulated in a variety of ways, proponents of precaution often argue that its essential feature is to require more evaluation of a technology before it is put to use, which increases the burden of proof that its overall effect is likely to be beneficial. Critics argue that precaution reflects irrational fears of unproven risks—“risk panics” (1)—and would paralyze development and use of beneficial new technologies (1, 2). Advocates give credence to this view when they suggest that precaution leads necessarily to moratoria (3). Progress in the debate over precaution is possible if we can reject the common assumption that precaution can be explained by a simple high-level principle and accept instead that what it requires must be worked out in particular contexts. The 2016 report from the U.S. National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) on gene drive research (4) illustrates this position. The report shows both that precaution cannot be rejected out of hand as scaremongering and that meaningful precaution can be consistent with support for science.

:: Journal Watch

:: Journal Watch
The Sentinel will track key peer-reviewed journals which address a broad range of interests in human rights, humanitarian response, health and development. It is not intended to be exhaustive. We will add to those monitored below as we encounter relevant content and upon recommendation from readers. We selectively provide full text of abstracts and other content but note that successful access to some of the articles and other content may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher. Please suggest additional journals you feel warrant coverage.

American Journal of Infection Control – November 2016 Volume 44, Issue 11

American Journal of Infection Control
November 2016 Volume 44, Issue 11, p1197-1430, e183-e282
http://www.ajicjournal.org/current

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Major Articles
Social media as a tool for antimicrobial stewardship
Jennifer Pisano, Natasha Pettit, Allison Bartlett, Palak Bhagat, Zhe Han, Chuanhong Liao, Emily Landon
p1231–1236
Published in issue: November 01 2016

National surveillance of health care–associated infections in Egypt: Developing a sustainable program in a resource-limited country
Maha Talaat, Mona El-Shokry, Jehan El-Kholy, Ghada Ismail, Sara Kotb, Soad Hafez, Ehab Attia, Fernanda C. Lessa
p1296–1301
Published online: June 20, 2016
Open Access

Brief Reports
How will the MMR universal mass vaccination change the epidemiologic pattern of mumps? A 2012 Italian serosurvey
Silvio Tafuri, Maria Serena Gallone, Angela Maria Vittoria Larocca, Cinzia Germinario
p1420–1421
Published online: May 2, 2016

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene – November 2016; 95 (5)

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
November 2016; 95 (5)
http://www.ajtmh.org/content/current

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Perspective Pieces
Partnerships that Facilitate a Refugee’s Journey to Wellbeing
Nina Marano, Abbey E. Wojno, William M. Stauffer, Michelle Weinberg, Alexander Klosovsky, J. Daniel Ballew, Sharmila Shetty, Susan Cookson, Patricia Walker, and Martin S. Cetron
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:985-987; Published online October 10, 2016, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0657
Abstract
The current global refugee crisis involves 65.3 million persons who have been displaced from their homes or countries of origin. While escaping immediate harm may be their first priority, displaced people go on to face numerous health risks, including trauma and injuries, malnutrition, infectious diseases, exacerbation of existing chronic diseases, and mental health conditions. This crisis highlights the importance of building capacity among health-care providers, scientists, and laboratorians to understand and respond to the health needs of refugees. The November 2016 American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) conference in Atlanta will feature an interactive exhibit entitled “The Refugee Journey to Wellbeing” and three symposia about refugee health. The symposia will focus on tropical disease challenges in refugee populations, careers in refugee health, and recent experiences of governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations in responding to the global refugee crisis. We invite ASTMH attendees to attend the exhibit and symposia and consider contributions they could make to improve refugee health through tropical disease research or clinical endeavors

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An Outbreak of Fearsome Photos and Headlines: Ebola and Local Newspapers in West Africa
Eric S. Halsey Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:988-992; Published online July 25, 2016, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0245
OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE

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Dengue Dynamics and Vaccine Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Philippines
Eunha Shim
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:1137-1147; Published online September 6, 2016, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0194
Abstract
Dengue is one of the most problematic vector-borne diseases in the Philippines, with an estimated 842,867 cases resulting in medical costs of $345 million U.S. dollars annually. In December 2015, the first dengue vaccine, known as chimeric yellow fever virus–dengue virus tetravalent dengue vaccine, was approved for use in the Philippines and is given to children 9 years of age. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in the Philippines, we developed an age-structured model of dengue transmission and vaccination. Using our model, we compared two vaccination scenarios entailing routine vaccination programs both with and without catch-up vaccination. Our results indicate that the higher the cost of vaccination, the less cost-effective the dengue vaccination program. With the current dengue vaccination program that vaccinates children 9 years of age, dengue vaccination is cost-effective for vaccination costs up to $70 from a health-care perspective and up to $75 from a societal perspective. Under a favorable scenario consisting of 1 year of catch-up vaccinations that target children 9–15 years of age, followed by regular vaccination of 9-year-old children, vaccination is cost-effective at costs up to $72 from a health-care perspective and up to $78 from a societal perspective. In general, dengue vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever /dengue shock syndrome. Our results demonstrate that even at relatively low vaccine efficacies, age-targeted vaccination may still be cost-effective provided the vaccination cost is sufficiently low.

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Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions
James A. Fuller and
Joseph N. S. Eisenberg
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 95:1201-1210; Published online September 6, 2016, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0677
Abstract
Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model.

BMC Infectious Diseases (Accessed 5 November 2016)

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 5 November 2016)

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Research article
Prevalence and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in Southern Ethiopia prior to implementation of MenAfriVac, a conjugate vaccine
Neisseria meningitidis colonizes humans and transmits mainly by asymptomatic carriage. We sought to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in Ethiopia prio…
Guro K. Bårnes, Paul A. Kristiansen, Demissew Beyene, Bereket Workalemahu, Paulos Fissiha, Behailu Merdekios, Jon Bohlin, Marie-Pierre Préziosi, Abraham Aseffa and Dominique A. Caugant
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:639
Published on: 4 November 2016

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Review
Alternative pre-approved and novel therapies for the treatment of anthrax
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic micr...
Breanne M. Head, Ethan Rubinstein and Adrienne F. A. Meyers
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:621
Published on: 3 November 2016

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Research article
Using the 4 pillars™ practice transformation program to increase adult influenza vaccination and reduce missed opportunities in a randomized cluster trial
An evidence-based, step-by-step guide, the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program, was the foundation of an intervention to increase adult immunizations in primary care and was tested in a randomized contr…
Chyongchiou J. Lin, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Valory N. Pavlik, Anthony E. Brown, Song Zhang, Jonathan M. Raviotta, Krissy K. Moehling, Mary Hawk, Edmund M. Ricci, Donald B. Middleton, Suchita Patel, Jeannette E. South-Paul and Richard K. Zimmerman
BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:623
Published on: 3 November 2016

Autonomy of the child in the South African context: is a 12 year old of sufficient maturity to consent to medical treatment?

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 5 November 2016)

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Debate
Autonomy of the child in the South African context: is a 12 year old of sufficient maturity to consent to medical treatment?
Wandile Ganya, Sharon Kling and Keymanthri Moodley
Published on: 2 November 2016
Abstract
Background
A child is a developing person with evolving capacities that include autonomy, mental (decisional) capacity and capacity to assume responsibility. Hence, children are entitled to participatory (autonomy) rights in South Africa as observed in the Children’s Act 38 of 2005. According to section 129 of the Act a child may consent to his or her own medical treatment provided that he or she is over the age of 12 years and is of sufficient maturity and decisional capacity to understand the various implications of the treatment including the risks and benefits thereof. However, the Act does not provide a definition for what qualifies as ‘sufficient maturity’ nor does it stipulate how health professionals ought to assess the decisional capacity of a child. In addition, South Africa is a culturally diverse country. The Western liberal notion of autonomy may not necessarily find equal prominence in the mores of people with a different worldview. Hence we demonstrate a few salient comparisons between legal liberal moral theory and African communitarianism as pertinent to the autonomy of the child.
Discussion
Children are rights-holders by virtue of their humanity. Their dignity as individual human persons affords them the entitlement to human rights as contemplated under the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. However, contrary to the traditional Western notion of individual autonomous persons African societies hold a communalistic notion of person hence there is less regard for individual autonomy and rights with more emphasis on the communal good and maintaining the continuity of relationships and interdependencies shared within a community. A child considered in this view is not regarded as a full person. This implies that decisions concerning the child, including consent to medical treatment are discussed and determined by the community to which the child belongs. Lastly, in this article, we draw on the notion of capacity for responsibility to produce a pragmatic definition of sufficient maturity.
Conclusion
It seems reasonable to suggest a move away from a general legal age of consent for medical treatment toward more individualised, context-specific approaches in determining the maturity of a child patient to consent to medical treatment. Perhaps, decision-making with respect to consent to the medical treatment of a child belonging to a traditional African community where the notion of a person is embedded in communitarianism ought to involve the child’s parents/guardians/caregivers where possible provided that the best interests of the child are awarded priority.

The emerging threat of pre-extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in West Africa: preparing for large-scale tuberculosis research and drug resistance surveillance

BMC Medicine

(Accessed 5 November 2016)

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Research article
The emerging threat of pre-extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in West Africa: preparing for large-scale tuberculosis research and drug resistance surveillance
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem. Adequate management requires baseline drug-resistance prevalence data. In West Africa, due to a poor laboratory infrastructure and inadequate…
Florian Gehre, Jacob Otu, Lindsay Kendall, Audrey Forson, Awewura Kwara, Samuel Kudzawu, Aderemi O. Kehinde, Oludele Adebiyi, Kayode Salako, Ignatius Baldeh, Aisha Jallow, Mamadou Jallow, Anoumou Dagnra, Kodjo Dissé, Essosimna A. Kadanga, Emmanuel Oni Idigbe…
BMC Medicine 2016 14:160
Published on: 3 November 2016

BMC Public Health (Accessed 5 November 2016)

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 5 November 2016)

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Research article
What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys
Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary acro...
Drissa Sia, Yentéma Onadja, Mohammad Hajizadeh, S. Jody Heymann, Timothy F. Brewer and Arijit Nandi
BMC Public Health 2016 16:1136
Published on: 3 November 2016

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Research article
Health literacy: the missing link in improving the health of Somali immigrant women in Oslo
Existing studies report a positive association between inadequate health literacy and immigrant’s adverse health outcomes. Despite substantial research on this topic among immigrants, little is known about the…
Abdi A. Gele, Kjell Sverre Pettersen, Liv Elin Torheim and Bernadette Kumar
BMC Public Health 2016 16:1134
Published on: 3 November 2016

Bulletin of the World Health Organization – Volume 94, Number 11, November 2016

Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Volume 94, Number 11, November 2016, 785-860
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/94/11/en/

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EDITORIALS
Research on community-based health workers is needed to achieve the sustainable development goals
Dermot Maher & Giorgio Cometto
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.185918

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Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba and Thailand
Naoko Ishikawa, Lori Newman, Melanie Taylor, Shaffiq Essajee, Razia Pendse & Massimo Ghidinelli
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.185033

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RESEARCH
Inequalities in full immunization coverage: trends in low- and middle-income countries
María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Aluísio JD Barros, Kerry LM Wong, Hope L Johnson, George Pariyo, Giovanny VA França, Fernando C Wehrmeister & Cesar G Victora
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.162172
Abstract
Objective
To investigate disparities in full immunization coverage across and within 86 low- and middle-income countries.
Methods
In May 2015, using data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we investigated inequalities in full immunization coverage – i.e. one dose of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, one dose of measles vaccine, three doses of vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and three doses of polio vaccine – in 86 low- or middle-income countries. We then investigated temporal trends in the level and inequality of such coverage in eight of the countries.
Findings
In each of the World Health Organization’s regions, it appeared that about 56–69% of eligible children in the low- and middle-income countries had received full immunization. However, within each region, the mean recorded level of such coverage varied greatly. In the African Region, for example, it varied from 11.4% in Chad to 90.3% in Rwanda. We detected pro-rich inequality in such coverage in 45 of the 83 countries for which the relevant data were available and pro-urban inequality in 35 of the 86 study countries. Among the countries in which we investigated coverage trends, Madagascar and Mozambique appeared to have made the greatest progress in improving levels of full immunization coverage over the last two decades, particularly among the poorest quintiles of their populations.
Conclusion
Most low- and middle-income countries are affected by pro-rich and pro-urban inequalities in full immunization coverage that are not apparent when only national mean values of such coverage are reported.

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Research
Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia
Andre Louis Wattiaux, J Kevin Yin, Frank Beard, Steve Wesselingh, Benjamin Cowie, James Ward & Kristine Macartney
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.169524
Abstract
Objective
To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults.
Methods
Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model.
Findings
Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953 infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented.
Conclusion
There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case.

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POLICY & PRACTICE
Dengue vaccine: local decisions, global consequences
Hugo López-Gatell, Celia M Alpuche-Aranda, José I Santos-Preciado & Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.168765
Abstract
As new vaccines against diseases that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries gradually become available, national health authorities are presented with new regulatory and policy challenges. The use of CYD-TDV – a chimeric tetravalent, live-attenuated dengue vaccine – was recently approved in five countries. Although promising for public health, this vaccine has only partial and heterogeneous efficacy and may have substantial adverse effects. In trials, children who were aged 2–5 years when first given CYD-TDV were seven times more likely to be hospitalized for dengue, in the third year post-vaccination, than their counterparts in the control group. As it has not been clarified whether this adverse effect is only a function of age or is determined by dengue serostatus, doubts have been cast over the long-term safety of this vaccine in seronegative individuals of any age. Any deployment of the vaccine, which should be very cautious and only considered after a rigorous evaluation of the vaccine’s risk–benefit ratio in explicit national and subnational scenarios, needs to be followed by a long-term assessment of the vaccine’s effects. Furthermore, any implementation of dengue vaccines must not weaken the political and financial support of preventive measures that can simultaneously limit the impacts of dengue and several other mosquito-borne pathogens.