American Journal of Public Health – Volume 106, Issue 6 (June 2016)

American Journal of Public Health
Volume 106, Issue 6 (June 2016)

Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits
Tara N. Heagele
American Journal of Public Health: June 2016, Vol. 106, No. 6: 979–982.

Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England
American Journal of Public Health: June 2016, Vol. 106, No. 6: 1073–1078.
Siân Oram, Melanie Abas, Debra Bick, Adrian Boyle, Rebecca French, Sharon Jakobowitz, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicky Stanley, Kylee Trevillion, Louise Howard, Cathy Zimmerman
Objectives. To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country.
Methods. Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014.
Results. Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29.3%), and labor exploitation (40.4%). Sixty-six percent of women reported forced sex during trafficking, including 95% of those trafficked for sexual exploitation and 54% of those trafficked for domestic servitude. Twenty-one percent of men and 24% of women reported ongoing injuries, and 8% of men and 23% of women reported diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. Finally, 78% of women and 40% of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
Conclusions. Psychological interventions to support the recovery of this highly vulnerable population are urgently needed.

Sexual Violence
Social Support, Sexual Violence, and Transactional Sex Among Female Transnational Migrants to South Africa
American Journal of Public Health: June 2016, Vol. 106, No. 6: 1123–1129.
Margaret Giorgio, Loraine Townsend, Yanga Zembe, Sally Guttmacher, Farzana Kapadia, Mireille Cheyip, Catherine Mathews
Objectives. To examine the relationship between sexual violence and transactional sex and assess the impact of social support on this relationship among female transnational migrants in Cape Town, South Africa.
Methods. In 2012 we administered a behavioral risk factor survey using respondent-driven sampling to transnational migrant women aged between 16 and 39 years, born outside South Africa, living in Cape Town, and speaking English, Shona, Swahili, Lingala, Kirundi, Kinyarwanda, French, or Somali.
Results. Controlling for study covariates, travel-phase sexual violence was positively associated with engagement in transactional sex (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 1.77), and social support was shown to be a protective factor (APR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.75, 0.95). The interaction of experienced sexual violence during migration and social support score was APR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.66, 1.10). In the stratified analysis, we found an increased risk of transactional sex among the low social support group (APR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.00). This relationship was not statistically significant among the moderate or high social support group (APR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.58, 1.87).
Conclusions. Programs designed to strengthen social support may reduce transactional sex among migrant women after they have settled in their receiving communities.