From Google Scholar+ [to 3 May 2014]
Selected content from beyond the journals and sources covered above, aggregated from a range of Google Scholar monitoring algorithms and other monitoring strategies.
Tropical Medicine and Health
[Advance Publication] Released 2014/04/23
Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges
Endurance A. Ophori1) 2), Musa Y. Tula1), Azuka V. Azih1), Rachel Okojie1), Precious E. Ikpo1)
1) Department of Microbiology (Immunology unit), Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin 2) Present address: Novena University
Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria.
The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Volume 42, Issue 1, pages 72–87, Spring 2014
Special Issue: SYMPOSIUM: The Right Not to Know
Nonbinding Legal Instruments in Governance for Global Health: Lessons from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism
Allyn Taylor1, Tobias Alfoén2, Daniel Hougendobler3 andKent Buse4
Article first published online: 28 APR 2014
Recent debate over World Health Organization reform has included unprecedented attention to international lawmaking as a future priority function of the Organization. However, the debate is largely focused on the codification of new binding legal instruments. Drawing upon lessons from the success of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the United Nations’ Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, we argue that effective global health governance requires consideration of a broad range of instruments, both binding and nonbinding.
A detailed examination of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism reveals that the choice of the nonbinding format makes an important contribution to its effectiveness. For instance, the flexibility and adaptability of the nonbinding format have allowed the global community to: (1) undertake commitments in a timely manner; (2) adapt and experiment in the face of a dynamic pandemic; and (3) grant civil society an unparalleled role in monitoring and reporting on state implementation of global commitments. UNAIDS’ institutional support has also played a vital role in ensuring the continuing effectiveness of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism. Overall, the experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism evidences that, at times, nimbler nonbinding instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance, but depend critically, like all instruments, on the perceived legitimacy thereof.
Disaster Prevention and Management
Volume 23 issue 3 – Current Issue
Qualitative research can improve understandings about disaster preparedness for independent older adults in the community
Robyn Tuohy, (Massey University), Christine Stephens, (Massey University), David Johnston, (Massey University)
Purpose – Improving older adults’ preparedness for and response to natural disasters has become an important issue. Population ageing, together with concerns about increasing extreme weather related events, has added further impetus to the need to reduce older adults’ vulnerability to disasters.
Design/methodology/approach – Social and environmental influences on community dwelling independent older adults have not been accounted for in models of hazard adjustment, which have invariably used quantitative research methods.
Findings – To date much of the preparedness and response research has focused on organisational responses to preparedness, while perspectives from older adults have received less attention. Furthermore social and environmental influences on community dwelling independent older adults have not been accounted for in models of hazard adjustment, which have invariably used quantitative research methods.
Originality/value – Extending research to include qualitative methodologies, which recognises older adults as active participants in research about themselves, would contribute to increasing understandings about influences on disaster preparedness and response; and inform social policies and prevention programmes.
Research on Social Work Practice (RSWP)
March 2014; 24 (2)
Haiti and the Earthquake Examining the Experience of Psychological Stress and Trauma
Ed Risler1, Sara Kintzle1, Larry Nackerud1
1School of Social Work, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of adult Haitians who were living in temporary shelters located in “tent cities” in Port-au-Prince and a comparative group of displaced individuals who left the capital city and took up residence in the northern rural town of Terrier Rouge. Sixty-five (N-65) participants completed the Impact of Events Scale–Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of trauma symptomology in the study groups. Data presented are comparisons between the groups on total IES-R scores and the measure subscales for intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Based on the scores on the measure for the comparison groups 4 months after the earthquake, the findings suggests that all participants in the study exceeded the threshold of an acute stress disorder and most likely experienced PTSD. Implications of using the data in future longitudinal studies on trauma in Haiti are also discussed.
International Journal of Mass Emergencies & Disasters
Mar 2014, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p220-240. 21p.
Fifteen Years of Disaster Volunteers in Japan: A Longitudinal Fieldwork Assessment of a Disaster Non-Profit Organization.
Atsumi, Tomohide; Goltz, James D.
Since the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, Japanese society has become accustomed to the presence of volunteers in the pre- and post-disaster environments, more specifically, in preparedness, response and recovery. The present study draws on the disaster research literature in exploring the social contexts in which groups of Kobe earthquake volunteers converged in January 1995 and formed organizations that continued to respond to national and international disasters during the 15 years that followed the 1995 earthquake. Based on the first author’s own longitudinal participant observation at a non-profit organization, the Nippon Volunteer Network Active in Disaster (NVNAD), the present study traces the development of the NVNAD over the last 15 years. The study’s basic conclusion is that, over the years, organized volunteerism in Japan has witnessed a struggle between the development of formal organizations emphasizing interagency cooperation and coordination of volunteers on one hand and the maintenance of a more affective social support-oriented approach with volunteers being physically and emotionally present to disaster survivors on the other.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
2014, 11(5), 4607-4618
Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review
Brendon R. Barnes
Received: 8 December 2013; in revised form: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 /
Published: 25 April 2014
Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.
Weather and Climate Extremes
Available online 24 April 2014
Adapting to Climate Change and Addressing Drought– learning from the Red Cross Red Crescent experiences in the Horn of Africa
Joy C.-Y. Muller,
The paper presented here is intended to share lessons learnt from the operations that the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and its National Societies undertook from 2008 to 2010 in the Horn of Africa related to the adaption to climate change and addressing drought. It acknowledges that to avoid further suffering from drought, not only in Africa (in the Horn and the Sahel region) but also other parts of the world, we need to change the way we invest. The IFRC advocates that for a national drought policy to be effective in its implementation, the policy itself will need to be developed with an integrated approach, a strong linkage to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in a country.