UNICEF [to 26 April 2014]

UNICEF [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.unicef.org/media/media_71508.html

Media Releases [selected]
Three times more children treated for severe acute malnutrition in Bangui hospital than this time last year
BANGUI, Central African Republic, 25 April 2014 – The number of children being treated for severe acute malnutrition in Bangui’s largest in-patient centre during the first quarter of 2014 has tripled compared to last year, UNICEF said today.

Equatorial Guinea Kicks Off Polio Campaign with UNICEF and partners
BATA, Equatorial Guinea, 24 April 2014 – In response to the third confirmed case of poliovirus in Equatorial Guinea, the government, UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners have launched a national polio immunization campaign of children under 15.

Boston Activate Talk: Innovating to Connect the Unconnected, 30 April 2014, 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. ET
Media Advisory: The Boston Activate Talk will look at creative ways to increase Internet access for underserved and marginalised communities, especially focusing on children and young people.

Joint statement by heads of UN humanitarian agencies on Syria
NEW YORK, GENEVA, ROME, 23 April 2014 – One year ago, as leaders of UN agencies struggling to deal with the growing human impact of the Syrian crisis, we issued an urgent appeal on behalf of millions of people whose lives and futures hang in the balance: Enough, we said, enough!

UNICEF Statement on released national staff in Karachi
KARACHI, 22 April 2014 – UNICEF is pleased to confirm that two of its national staff who were abducted on Thursday evening in Karachi are now safe and well.

UNICEF: Desperate water shortages facing children in Bentiu, South Sudan
JUBA, South Sudan, 22 April 2014 – Tens of thousands of people who fled targeted ethnic violence in Bentiu last week are receiving just one litre of safe drinking water per day in the desperately overcrowded UN base, UNICEF said today.

Children of Kachin need protection and have a right to peace, says UNICEF
YANGON, Myanmar, 22 April 2014 – Recent fighting between the Myanmar National Army and the Kachin Independence Army in the vicinity of Man Win Gyi and Momauk areas (Southern Kachin State) has forced thousands of people, including an estimated 1,000 children, to leave their temporary homes. For many of them, it is the second or third time that they have been forced to take to the road in the past year. Although reports state that the fighting has slowed in the past few days, the situation remains tense.

UNICEF and Global Fund coordinate efforts to reach mothers, newborns and children
GENEVA/NEW YORK, 22 April 2014 – UNICEF and the Global Fund today reinforced their long-standing partnership through a new agreement to better coordinate efforts aimed at reducing the burden of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria and improving the health of mothers, newborns, and children.

UNOCHA [to 26 April 2014]

UNOCHA [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.unocha.org/

Press Releases
26 Apr 2014
Afghanistan: Afghanistan – Flash Floods in Northern Region – Statement Attributable to Mr. Mark Bowden, United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator in Afghanistan
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Afghanistan Kabul, 26 April, 2014 – Heavy rainfall since 24 April has sparked flash floods across six provinces of the Northern Region of Afghanistan, causing loss of life and widespread damage to homes and agriculture. Provincial authorities report that more than 120 Afghans have been killed and more are still missing. Mark Bowden, the UN Humanitarian Coordinator said: “On behalf of the UN Humanitarian agencies, I wish…

23 Apr 2014
Solomon Islands: UNDAC team assessing mine tailings dam in the Solomon Islands
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Solomon Islands (Honiara, 23 April 2014): A three-person United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team has arrived in the Solomon Islands to assess a gold mine tailings storage facility following flash floods and heavy rains in the region. There are concerns rising water levels in the dam, located about 30 kilometres from the capital Honiara, may have weakened, potentially placing around 8,000 people…

23 Apr 2014
Syrian Arab Republic: Joint statement by heads of UN humanitarian agencies on Syria
[see full text above in Week in Review]

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Early Recovery and Livelihoods Cluster Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) 14 April 2014
Source: International Labour Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Philippines Overview Overview Typhoon Haiyan caused extensive damage to livelihoods, leaving local economies vulnerable and joblessness rampant. An estimated 5.9 million workers lost their sources of income and livelihoods, of which 60 per cent were men and 40 per cent women. An estimated 49 per cent worked in the service sector, which includes retail, trade,…

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Camp Coordination and Camp Management Cluster: Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), 11 April 2014
Source: International Organization for Migration, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, CCCM Cluster Country: Philippines Overview The Camp Coordination and Camp Management Cluster tracks and monitors displacement flows in all displacement sites in order to define caseloads, identify vulnerable groups, monitor and coordinate service provision in camps and advocate durable solutions for internally displaced people (IDPs). The CCCM Cluster, led by the Department of Social…

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Communications with communities: Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), 11 April 2014
Source: Government of the Philippines, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Philippines Overview The extent of the devastation brought by Haiyan not only disrupted communities’ access to critical life-saving information in the first few days after the Typhoon; it also affected life-sustaining information due to limited communication channels months afterwards. Communications are a form of aid. The right information, at the right time, through the right channels can…

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Emergency Telecommunication Cluster Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) 11 April 2014
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Food Programme Country: Philippines Overview Typhoon Haiyan swept through the central Philippines on 8 November, killing over 6,000 people and displacing some four million, including 789,000 children. With national telecommunications capacity severely disrupted, the Emergency Telecommunications Cluster (ETC) was activated to provide security communications, Internet connectivity and coordination services to the…

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Health Cluster: Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), 11 April 2014
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Philippines Overview In the Philippines, following Typhoon Yolanda’s landfall in November 2013, the priorities of the Health Cluster included full reestablishment of health-care services, improved health care, strengthening surveillance, and outbreak prevention and response.

22 Apr 2014
Philippines: Logistics Cluster Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) 11 April 2014
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Logistics Cluster Country: Philippines Overview The Logistics Cluster’s temporary storage facilities in Cebu and Palo have now closed. Storage services are no longer available. As of 15 March, the Logistics Cluster provided a total 1,164 trucks to the Government through the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) in support of their food distribution operations in Leyte. This service has now been discontinued and…

WHO & Regionals [to 26 April 2014]

WHO & Regionals [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.who.int/en/

WHO: World Immunization Week campaign
Immunize for a healthy future – Know. Check. Protect
24 April 2014
This year’s World Immunization Week campaign asks “Are you up-to-date?” with your immunizations. It focuses on providing people with the information they need to make informed decisions about vaccination.

PAHO/WHO urges vaccination against measles and rubella to protect the Americas during the 2014 FIFA World Cup
04/24/2014
Transmission has been interrupted in the Americas, but measles and rubella continue to circulate in other parts of the world. More than 600,000 people are expected to attend the FIFA World Cup in Brazil. With the theme “Vaccination: Your best shot!” Vaccination Week in the Americas highlights the importance of immunization.

UNDP United Nations Development Program [to 26 April 2014]

UNDP United Nations Development Program [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.us.undp.org/content/undp/en/home.html

24 Apr 2014
Chile: UNDP helps rebuild fire-hit Valparaiso
Santiago , Chile – The UN Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Representative in Chile Antonio Molpeceres and the mayor of the city of Valparaiso Jorge Castro signed a an agreement on April 23 to boost disaster risk reduction and revamp the city’s development plan, following a deadly fire that killed at least 15 people, left more than 2,900 homeless and forced mass evacuations.

UN Women [to 26 April 2014]

UN Women [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.unwomen.org/

A push to match rhetoric and reality to counter chronic underinvestment in gender equality
Posted on April 25, 2014
At the first High-Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, held in Mexico City 15-16 April 2014, governments, business, private foundations and civil society assessed progress over the past two years towards implementation of the 2011 Busan Partnership Agreement, which re-affirmed global commitment to the principles of accountability, results, transparency, inclusivity and national ownership in development cooperation. More

People-led policies: Join the e-discussion on participatory monitoring and accountability
Posted on April 25, 2014
A 5-week long e-discussion on “Participatory Monitoring and Accountability” will be held from 2 April to 7 May 2014 through the worldwewant2015.org platform. Over the last two years the UN system – in partnership with governments and civil society – has been working towards the inclusion of millions of people in crafting the next development agenda. More

Speech by Lakshmi Puri at the Intersessional Meeting of the Preparatory Process for the Third Conference on Small Island Developing States
Posted on April 24, 2014
Speech by UN Women Deputy Executive Director Lakshmi Puri at the Intersessional Meeting of the Preparatory Process for the Third Conference on Small Island Developing States, New York, 23 April 2014. More

Ugandan Parliament adopts resolution to address needs of war-affected women
Posted on April 23, 2014
Years of advocacy by women’s rights groups including those monitoring justice for women with disabilities in northern Uganda pays off. Justice for conflict-affected women in Uganda took a big step forward as the Parliament unanimously passed a resolution calling for establishment of special programmes for people affected by the LRA war in northern Uganda. More

Interview with Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Borge Brende
Posted on April 23, 2014
In an interview, Norway’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, Borge Brende, refers to his country’s continuous financial commitment as one of the top core donors to UN Women, calling UN Women an important partner that is on the right track and has been delivering. More

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund [to 26 April 2014]

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.unfpa.org/public/

24 April 2014 – Dispatch
Ready-made delivery kits save women’s lives in Cameroon
GAROUA, Cameroon – The first few times she gave birth, Hadja Aminatou, of the northern Cameroonian town of Garoua, could not afford to seek care at the local hospital. Instead, she gave birth at home. But during her last delivery, she was finally able to receive skilled care, largely due to a programme that subsidizes and pre-positions delivery and Caesarean ‘kits’ in health facilities across the country. more

23 April 2014 – Dispatch
Midwives, emergency care key to reducing Cambodia’s maternal deaths
STUNG TRENG, Cambodia – Sixteen-year-old Hang Dèng travelled for an hour by boat to reach the health centre closest to her remote Cambodian village; she was in labour and suffering complications. Access to emergency care and skilled birth attendants saved both her life and that of her child. more

23 April 2014 – Press Release
Global Parliamentarians Mark Twentieth Anniversary of “Revolution” in International Development
STOCKHOLM, 23 April 2014—More than 260 parliamentarians from 134 countries started a meeting here today to renew their commitment to the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). more

21 April 2014 – Dispatch
Amid Crisis in South Sudan, Youth Continue to Hope for a Brighter Future
JUBA, South Sudan – In 2011, Jamal Deng, 23, joined his war-weary countrymen in celebrating South Sudan’s independence after a devastating and protracted conflict with the North. Like for many young people in South Sudan, independence had ushered in the promise of a new era. Today, Deng is among an estimated 800,000 people displaced inside South Sudan by a new wave of violence that broke out in December. more
18 April 2014 – Press Release

FAO Food & Agriculture Organization [to 26 April 2014]

FAO Food & Agriculture Organization [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.fao.org/home/en/

Summit commits to concrete actions to turn around ocean health and secure food security for millions of people
Global Oceans Action Summit for Blue Growth and Food Security concludes in The Hague
Excerpt
25 April 2014, The Hague – A summit that brought together more than 600 ocean stakeholders – including 80 ministers from across the world, ocean science experts, business leaders, philanthropists and heads of international organizations – committed to a set of concrete actions responding to the urgency for restoring productive, resilient oceans that drive broad-based blue growth and deliver food security.
A joint initiative of the Government of the Netherlands, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank, the Global Oceans Action Summit for Blue Growth and Food Security found unprecedented convergence around the urgent steps needed to tackle the key threats to the world’s oceans: climate change, overfishing, habitat loss and pollution.
Actions focused specifically on improving governance, enhancing sustainable financing, building partnerships for action and sharing knowledge on successful solution implementation.
The summit called for:
:: A stand-alone Sustainable Development Goal on oceans as part of the post-2015 Development Framework
:: Much stronger recognition of the escalating impacts from climate change on oceans and ensuring ocean health is incorporated into the international processes and events heading towards the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) conference of parties in Paris
:: Eliminating harmful fisheries subsidies that contribute to overfishing and overcapacity and instead incentivizing approaches that improve conservation, build sustainable fisheries and end illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing
:: Strengthening the mandate of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations and their financing and accelerating ratification of agreed mechanisms for improved fisheries practices, better conservation and less pollution, including the Port State Measures Agreement
:: Investing in small and medium scale fisheries and local communities as vital stewards for blue growth and support to sustainable supply chains
:: Building on existing partnerships like the Global Partnership for Oceans, the Global Island Partnership and 50in10 to build global momentum and scale up successes
:: Sharing of knowledge, experiences and solutions through information and communications technology that can enforce and monitor in real time and connect communities globally…

Tsetse fly genome breakthrough brings hope for African farmers
Scientists have cracked the genetic code of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, prompting hope that the breakthrough will help future efforts to control one of the most devastating livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa spread by the insect.
24-04-2014

The changing face of global banana trade
Fewer giants, more opportunities, but tighter competition in global markets, FAO analysis shows.
24-04-2014

WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) [to 26 April 2014]

WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.wipo.int/portal/en/index.html

World Intellectual Property Day, April 26, 2014: “Movies – A Global Passion”
Film tastes are as varied as the world’s consumers, with new centers of cinematic excellence sprouting in dozens of countries around the world. The global intellectual property system helps keep the reels turning, supporting the creation and delivery of films to eager audiences. That’s why the theme of World IP Day 2014, held on April 26, is “Movies – A Global Passion.”
Apr 25, 2014 PR/2014/758

WIPO Re:Search Passes New Milestone in Fight Against Neglected Diseases
An initiative bringing together pharmaceutical firms and other research groups has brokered more than 50 new partnerships in the fight against neglected tropical diseases, tuberculosis and malaria, marking an important milestone in using the intellectual property system to help combat maladies affecting more than one billion people.
Apr 24, 2014 PR/2014/757

CBD (Convention of Biological Diversity) [to 26 April 2014]

CBD (Convention of Biological Diversity) [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.cbd.int/

2014-04-22
Donors replenish Global Environmental Facility, but large funding gap for biodiversity remains
Excerpt
Montreal, 22 April 2014 – US$ 4.43 billion has been pledged by 30 donor countries for the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to support developing countries’ efforts over the next four years to prevent degradation of the global environment.
The announcement, made at the Fourth Meeting for the Sixth Replenishment of GEF Trust Fund, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 16-17 April 2014, further stated that the funding will support projects in over 140 countries to tackle a broad range of threats to the global environment. These threats include climate change, deforestation, land degradation, extinction of species, toxic chemicals and waste, and threats to oceans and freshwater resources.
The GEF is the main global mechanism to support developing countries’ to take action to fulfill their commitments under the world’s major multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
“This is a significant development. We welcome the efforts of the GEF Secretariat and the commitments of donor governments to replenish the GEF capital and thus allow the GEF to continue to serve as the financial mechanism of the CBD and other MEAs,” said Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias, CBD Executive Secretary. “This will ensure that the GEF maintains its support for developing countries and countries with economies in transitions to support the implementation of their commitments under the CDB, in particular the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity for 2011-2020 and its 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans and associated national targets.”…

USAID [to 26 April 2014]

USAID [to 26 April 2014]
http://www.usaid.gov/

Press Releases
Joint Statement on the Anniversary of Rana Plaza Building Collapse in Bangladesh
Wednesday, April 23, 2014
The text of the following statement was released by the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Department of State, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, and the Department of Labor.

Impact Blog
Video: Ghanaian Town Takes on Malaria
April 25, 2014 — Kelly Ramundo
One of the most effective methods the United States supports to fight malaria around the world is spraying homes in the areas where the mosquitos live with an insecticide – delivering a knock-out punch to the pesky population. This video shows how one community in Ghana is mobilizing against…

Full Speed Ahead on Malaria
April 25, 2014 — Rear Admiral (RET.) R. Tim Ziemer, U.S. Global Malaria Coordinator
The greatest success story in global health is anchored by a continent once known mostly for famine and war. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are making unprecedented gains in child survival and reducing the devastating burden of malaria—a disease carried by mosquitoes and a major killer of…

BMC Health Services Research (Accessed 26 April 2014)

BMC Health Services Research
(Accessed 26 April 2014)
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmchealthservres/content

Research article
Effective access to health care in Mexico
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Germán Fajardo Dolci and Mauricio Hernández Ávila
Author Affiliations
BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:186 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-186
Published: 23 April 2014
Abstract (provisional)
Background
Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services.
Methods
Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012.
Results
In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level.
Conclusions
Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico.

Research article
A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda
Sebastian Olikira Baine and Arabat Kasangaki
Author Affiliations
BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:184 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-184
Published: 23 April 2014
Abstract (provisional)
Background
Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations.
Methods
This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis.
Results
Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally.
Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor.
Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision.
Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers.
Conclusions
Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended.

Study protocol
Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model – an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi
Stephan Brenner, Adamson S Muula, Paul Jacob Robyn, Till Bärnighausen, Malabika Sarker, Don P Mathanga, Thomas Bossert and Manuela De Allegri
Author Affiliations
BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14:180 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-180
Published: 22 April 2014
Abstract (provisional)
Background
In this article we present a study design to evaluate the causal impact of providing supply-side performance-based financing incentives in combination with a demand-side cash transfer component on equitable access to and quality of maternal and neonatal healthcare services. This intervention is introduced to selected emergency obstetric care facilities and catchment area populations in four districts in Malawi. We here describe and discuss our study protocol with regard to the research aims, the local implementation context, and our rationale for selecting a mixed methods explanatory design with a quasi-experimental quantitative component.
Design
The quantitative research component consists of a controlled pre- and post-test design with multiple post-test measurements. This allows us to quantitatively measure ‘equitable access to healthcare services’ at the community level and ‘healthcare quality’ at the health facility level. Guided by a theoretical framework of causal relationships, we determined a number of input, process, and output indicators to evaluate both intended and unintended effects of the intervention. Overall causal impact estimates will result from a difference-in-difference analysis comparing selected indicators across intervention and control facilities/catchment populations over time.
To further explain heterogeneity of quantitatively observed effects and to understand the experiential dimensions of financial incentives on clients and providers, we designed a qualitative component in line with the overall explanatory mixed methods approach. This component consists of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers, service user, non-users, and policy stakeholders. In this explanatory design comprehensive understanding of expected and unexpected effects of the intervention on both access and quality will emerge through careful triangulation at two levels: across multiple quantitative elements and across quantitative and qualitative elements.
Discussion
Combining a traditional quasi-experimental controlled pre- and post-test design with an explanatory mixed methods model permits an additional assessment of organizational and behavioral changes affecting complex processes. Through this impact evaluation approach, our design will not only create robust evidence measures for the outcome of interest, but also generate insights on how and why the investigated interventions produce certain intended and unintended effects and allows for a more in-depth evaluation approach.

Diarrhea incidence and intestinal infections among rotavirus vaccinated infants from a poor area in Brazil: a spatial analysis

BMC Public Health
(Accessed 26 April 2014)
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpublichealth/content

Research article
Diarrhea incidence and intestinal infections among rotavirus vaccinated infants from a poor area in Brazil: a spatial analysis
Claudimary Bispo Santos, Karina Conceição Araújo, Anne Jardim-Botelho, Márcio Bezerra Santos, Alda Rodrigues, Silvio Santana Dolabella and Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
Author Affiliations
BMC Public Health 2014, 14:399 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-399
Published: 24 April 2014
Abstract (provisional)
Background
Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. The pathogen most strongly associated with diarrhea is rotavirus followed by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, helminthes and protozoan. Adequate sanitation and water supply contribute to decrease acute diarrhea incidence of most etiologic agents, although vaccination remains the most important intervention to control rotavirus acute diarrhea. This study aimed to describe environmental conditions and analyze spatially the acute diarrhea and intestinal infection among rotavirus vaccinated infants from Laranjeiras-Sergipe, Brazil.
Methods
Children were enrolled between 2 and 11 months of age and followed through 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from a questionnaire, and immunization data were obtained from children vaccination card. Children stool samples were collected each month in order to run laboratory analyses. The household spatial localization was obtained by using a Global Positioning System (GPS). Spatial analysis was performed using the TerraView computer program and Kernel intensity estimation.
Results
A total of 1,113 stool samples were collected with 80 being diarrhea associated. Diarrhea incidence rate was 0.5 +/- 1.0 episodes/child/year. The overall infection rates by Ascaris lumbricoides, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia and rotavirus were 5.1%, 3.0%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. 3.8% of diarrhea-associated stool samples were positive for rotavirus and 11.3% were positive for helminths and protozoans. There were some changes on spatial distribution of intestinal infections and diarrhea episodes along the four trimesters evaluated.
Conclusions
The studied infants live equally in precarious conditions of sanitation which probably explain the significant rates of parasitic infections appearing in early life. The low acute diarrhea incidence in the studied rotavirus vaccinated population and the low number of symptomatic rotavirus infection may indicate vaccination efficacy to prevent acute diarrhea among young children in a poor environmental sanitary setting.

Development in Practice Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014

Development in Practice
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cdip20/current

Transforming the social capital of the urban poor: Lessons from Kisumu, Kenya
DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2014.867306
Caroline Cage*
pages 3-17
Abstract
Large-scale organisations of the urban poor (OUP) are needed for greater influence in urban governance. However, where contexts are non-enabling for large-scale organisations to develop, external support may be needed. Past NGO support for building social capital has been heavily criticised for failing to address its darker side, while new forms of OUP supported by urban poor federations have been cited as more inclusive, representative organisations. This study compares NGO- and slum-dwellers’ federation-supported OUPs in Kisumu, Kenya, and finds evidence that development partners should seek to scale-up existing social capital while ensuring that networks formed are transformative for marginalised identities.

Global financial crisis and women’s micro-lending innovations in Pakistan and Malawi
DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2014.867927
Tahmina Rashid & Jonathan Makuwira*
pages 39-50
Abstract
Microcredit/finance as a tool to eradicate poverty and empower women in developing countries has been a darling of developed countries. The success stories from microcredit borrowers from Bangladesh, India, and Africa, and global endorsement of microcredit programmes have largely ignored local indigenous initiatives managed by groups of women in rural and urban areas. Evidence from fieldwork in Pakistan and Malawi suggests that although systematically recorded history of such indigenous initiatives is lacking, women in these settings would attest that there exists generational knowledge about such small-scale, group-based micro-lending which can be used to enhance livelihoods in rural households.

Extreme poverty alleviation through community-based entrepreneurship: PRODECO in Paraguay
DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2014.867301
Julian Gallardo & Emmanuel Raufflet*
pages 140-146
Received: 26 Sep 2011
Accepted: 3 Oct 2013
Published online: 22 Apr 2014
Abstract
Community-based entrepreneurship projects have been advocated as a potential approach to alleviate extreme poverty as they provide opportunities for income generation and capacity enhancement. This practical note provides an overview of the PRODECO project undertaken jointly by the Paraguayan government and the World Bank (1999–2008) in three southern departments of Paraguay (Itapúa, Misiones, and Ñeembucú). It describes and analyses the context, scope, operations, and results of this project, and identifies five main lessons related to frequent challenges faced by this approach; on size, access to skills, distance from government agencies, pace, and technology

Global Public Health Volume 9, Issue 4, 2014

Global Public Health
Volume 9, Issue 4, 2014
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rgph20/current#.Uq0DgeKy-F9

Review of the epidemiological evidence for physical activity and health from low- and middle-income countries
DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2014.894548
Karen Miltona*, Rona Macnivenb & Adrian Baumanb
pages 369-381
Abstract
Almost 80% of deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occur in low- and middle-income countries. Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for NCDs. Enhancing understanding of the scientific evidence linking physical activity and health in low- and middle-income countries is important for supporting national efforts to promote physical activity and reduce NCDs in these countries. A systematic review of three electronic databases was conducted in July 2013, including large population-based epidemiological studies with adult participants, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, and published in the past 30 years. Physical activity was consistently associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and several types of cancer. Positive associations were also found between physical activity and body composition (including overweight and obesity), blood pressure, cholesterol, metabolic indices and bone mineral density. Overall, the results confirm that the epidemiological research into the health benefits of physical activity in low- and middle-income countries is consistent with previous research conducted in high-income countries. This summary of the available research can be used as an advocacy tool in low- and middle-income countries to support greater prominence of physical activity in NCD policies.

La situación económica: Social determinants of contraceptive use in rural Honduras
DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2014.890238
Marissa G. Hallab*, Jenna J. Garrettc & Clare Barringtonab
pages 455-468
Abstract
Contraceptive use is an important determinant of unintended pregnancy, but little is known about the social and structural factors that determine women’s contraceptive use in rural Honduras. In this study, we aim to characterise the individual and social determinants of contraceptive use among women in rural Honduras. In 2011 and 2012, we conducted 14 interviews and 2 focus groups with women 18 years and older. In our analysis, we created a family-planning narrative for each participant and coded transcripts around key emergent themes related to these determinants. We found that social determinants – including poverty, gender dynamics and availability of family-planning methods – had a strong influence on contraceptive use among women in our sample. Study participants stated that they were faced with a difficult economic situation compounded by rising prices of basic goods and diminishing job opportunities. Paradoxically, at the same time that the economic situation led women to seek contraception, it also contributed to the structural barriers that limited their ability to obtain their method of choice and maintain continuous contraceptive use. Our findings suggest the need for multi-level efforts to create an enabling and sustainable environment for family planning among women in rural Honduras.

International Journal of Epidemiology Volume 43 Issue 2 April 2014

International Journal of Epidemiology
Volume 43 Issue 2 April 2014
http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

Editorial
Psychiatric epidemiology and global mental health: joining forces
Ezra Susser1,*
1Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA, and
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W. 168th St, #1030, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Vikram Patel2,3,4
Author Affiliations
2London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK, 3Sangath, Goa, India and 4Centre for Mental Health, Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India.
In our view, population mental health is integral to population health, or put more simply, there can be ‘no health without mental health’.1 It follows that there can be ‘no epidemiology of health without mental health.’ One obvious reason for paying more attention to mental health is the large contribution of mental disorders to the burden of disease across the globe.2 Another reason is that people with severe mental disorders represent a vulnerable and socially excluded population.3 Their lives are more likely to be afflicted by poverty, discrimination, human rights violations and increased morbidity and mortality rates. If we wish to ameliorate social inequality, we need to find ways to improve the living conditions as well as the health of this especially disadvantaged group. There are also many other relationships between social inequality and mental health. For example, socially advantaged groups tend to have more access in early life to environments that stimulate social, emotional and cognitive development, and these early advantages are related to a range of better mental health and social outcomes across the life course. Taking the broadest view, one could argue that the most valuable resource of modern societies is ‘human capital’, that the benchmark of progress is ‘human development’ and that mental health is fundamental to both.4–7
The reviews in this issue portray a remarkably diverse range of contributions that epidemiologists and other researchers have made to understanding and improving the mental health of populations across the globe. The thread that connects them is an exploration of the interface between psychiatric epidemiology and global mental health, and how closer links might be forged to the mutual benefit of both fields. Our introduction and the three accompanying commentaries8–10 focus on this theme from different angles.

Commentary: Epidemiological mental health research: contribution from low- and middle-income countries is essential
Paulo Rossi Menezes
Author Affiliations
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo 455, São Paulo, SP Brazil.
The burden of mental disorders is very high all over the world, as already pointed out in the previous comments of this special issue of IJE. Hopefully, the relevance of mental disorders as one of the world’s main public health priorities has started to become acknowledged. In its 2014 meeting, the World Economic Forum had mental health as one of its relevant topics (http://www.weforum.org/events/world-economic-forum-annual-meeting-2014). Last year the World Health Organization and member states approved the Mental Health Action Plan 2013, during the 65th World Health Assembly, which highlights the need for improvement in research capacity and academic collaboration on research in mental health in Low- And Middle-Income Countries (LAMIC), especially for operational research that can lead to service development and implementation. However, the challenge ahead is not simple. An investigation in 114 LAMIC in three continents showed that there is scarcity of both resources and capacity for mental health research, and that existing resources and capacity are very unevenly distributed.1 This special issue of IJE, focused on reviewing research evidence related to global mental health on its methodological aspects, aetiology, burden and impact, prevention and service evaluation, confirms how limited is the production of scientific knowledge about these topics in LAMIC.
Good quality epidemiological mental health research in LAMIC is urgently needed for several reasons. For instance, it can give better understanding about the aetiology of mental disorders, which can then lead to preventive public health actions, and it is essential to produce data that …

Estimating the coverage of mental health programmes: a systematic review
Mary J De Silva1,*, Lucy Lee1, Daniela C Fuhr1, Sujit Rathod1, Dan Chisholm2, Joanna Schellenberg3 and Vikram Patel1,4
Author Affiliations
1Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK, 2Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 3Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK and 4Sangath, Alto-Porvorim, Goa, India
Corresponding author. Centre for Global Mental Health, Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT. E-mail: mary.desilva@lshtm.ac.uk
Accepted August 21, 2013.
Abstract
Background The large treatment gap for people suffering from mental disorders has led to initiatives to scale up mental health services. In order to track progress, estimates of programme coverage, and changes in coverage over time, are needed.
Methods Systematic review of mental health programme evaluations that assess coverage, measured either as the proportion of the target population in contact with services (contact coverage) or as the proportion of the target population who receive appropriate and effective care (effective coverage). We performed a search of electronic databases and grey literature up to March 2013 and contacted experts in the field. Methods to estimate the numerator (service utilization) and the denominator (target population) were reviewed to explore methods which could be used in programme evaluations.
Results We identified 15 735 unique records of which only seven met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported contact coverage. No study explicitly measured effective coverage, but it was possible to estimate this for one study. In six studies the numerator of coverage, service utilization, was estimated using routine clinical information, whereas one study used a national community survey. The methods for estimating the denominator, the population in need of services, were more varied and included national prevalence surveys case registers, and estimates from the literature.
Conclusions Very few coverage estimates are available. Coverage could be estimated at low cost by combining routine programme data with population prevalence estimates from national.

Global Opportunities and Challenges for Clinical Neuroscience

JAMA
April 23/30, 2014, Vol 311, No. 16
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

Viewpoint |
Global Opportunities and Challenges for Clinical Neuroscience
Gretchen L. Birbeck, MD1,2; Michael G. Hanna, MD3; Robert C. Griggs, MD1
Author Affiliations
JAMA. 2014;311(16):1609-1610. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.2744.
Clinical neuroscience faces 2 challenges: (1) an increasing number of persons worldwide with neurodegenerative and neurovascular disorders and the increased expenditures necessary for their care; and (2) patients with rare neurologic diseases who also deserve and demand attention. Demographic changes and the “epidemiologic transition” (from infections to chronic diseases) have converged, causing an unprecedented global burden of disabling neurologic disorders: in 2010, approximately 35 million people were living with dementia; by 2030, this population is expected to reach 70 million and by 2050 is projected to exceed 115 million people, with most living in lower- and middle-income countries.1 Stroke, the principal cause of long-term disability irrespective of age, sex, ethnicity, or country, causes more deaths annually than AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined; incidence of stroke is expected to increase over the next decade, primarily in regions already affected by these infectious diseases.

The Lancet Apr 26, 2014 Volume 383 Number 9927 p1437 – 1520

The Lancet
Apr 26, 2014 Volume 383 Number 9927 p1437 – 1520
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

Editorial
Time to contain artemisinin resistance
The Lancet
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The theme of this year’s World Malaria Day (April 25) is elimination: invest in the future and defeat malaria. Good progress has been made towards controlling malaria and reducing disease incidence. Since 2000, mortality rates from malaria have fallen by 42% worldwide and by 49% in Africa. This success can be attributed, in part, to the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy in malaria-endemic countries. But does resistance to artemisinins in the Greater Mekong Subregion threaten a global health catastrophe?

Comment
Malaria: a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance
Nicholas J White
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Global malaria morbidity and mortality are falling.1 Elimination of malaria is back on the table. Things are looking good—or are they? The two main developments that have achieved these advances—insecticides to repel or kill mosquitoes, and drugs to prevent and treat malaria—are both falling to resistance. Artemisinin, the cornerstone of antimalarial therapeutics, is the latest casualty. The artemisinin derivatives are remarkable antimalarials; they are very safe and well tolerated, and are rapidly effective.