The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 14 September 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 14 Sep 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Global leaders call for urgent action on climate adaptation; commission finds adaptation can deliver $7.1 trillion in benefits

Climate Action

10 Sep 2019 Press release
Global leaders call for urgent action on climate adaptation; commission finds adaptation can deliver $7.1 trillion in benefits
Global Commission on Adaptation report finds that investing $1.8 trillion globally from 2020 to 2030 in five areas of climate adaptation could yield $7.1 trillion in net benefits.

The Commission’s report highlights many economic, social and environmental benefits of adaptation

Climate impacts – such as super-charged hurricanes, floods, and wildfires – are becoming an increasingly urgent reality

Washington/Rotterdam, 10 September 2019 – At a time when the impacts of the climate crisis – such as super-charged hurricanes, floods, and wildfires – are becoming increasingly clear, leaders from the Global Commission on Adaptation are calling on governments and businesses to take urgent action to innovate and advance climate adaptation solutions in light of new research findings.

The report, Adapt Now: A Gobal Call for Leadership on Climate Resilience, puts forward a bold vision for how to transform key economics systems, making them more resilient and productive. The Commission finds that climate adaptation can produce significant economic returns: the overall rate of return on investments in improved resilience is high, with benefit-cost ratios ranging from 2:1 to 10:1, and in some cases even higher.

The analysis specifically finds that investing $1.8 trillion globally in five areas from 2020 to 2030 could generate $7.1 trillion in total net benefits. The five areas of climate adaptation the report considers are: early warning systems, climate-resilient infrastructure, improved dryland agriculture, mangrove protection, and investments in making water resources more resilient. These represent just a portion of the total investments needed and total benefits available.

…Launched with events in over 10 capitals and cities around the world, including Majuro, Beijing, New Delhi, Geneva, Mexico City, Ottawa, Wainibuka, Washington D.C., among others, the Commission’s report highlights the many economic, social and environmental benefits of climate adaptation. For example:
:: Restoring mangrove forests in places like Thailand, India and the Philippines protects coastal communities from deadly storm surges while providing critical habitats to local fisheries and boosting prosperity.
:: The Netherlands “Room for the River” strategy moved dikes inland, widened rivers and created water-absorbing plazas. These projects manage and slow floodwaters, while providing innovative public use spaces and revitalizing neighbourhoods.
:: Zimbabwe, farmers using drought-tolerant maize were able to harvest up to 600 kilograms more maize per hectare than with conventional maize. The additional harvest was enough to feed a family of six for nine months and provided US $240 in extra income, helping them send their children to school and meet other household needs.
:: Reducing flood risks in urban areas lowers financial costs, increases security, and makes investments more viable that would otherwise be too vulnerable to climate risks. London’s Canary Wharf and other developments in East London would have been impossible without flood protection from the Thames Barrier.

In order to ensure that climate impacts, risks and solutions are factoring into decision making at all levels, the report calls for revolutions in three areas: understanding, planning and finance. It also explores how these major system changes can be applied across seven interlocking systems: food, the natural environment, water, cities, infrastructure, disaster risk management, and finance…

Nature – Editorial | Take action to stop the Amazon burning

Featured Journal Content

Nature
Volume 573 Issue 7773, 12 September 2019
http://www.nature.com/nature/current_issue.html

Editorial | 10 September 2019
Take action to stop the Amazon burning
The planet’s largest rainforest is on fire. Brazil and the world must halt the destruction before it’s too late.
L ss than a decade ago, Brazil was an environmental leader. Its government had elevated forest conservation and sustainable development to national policy and then, with the help of satellite imagery, it had cracked down on illegal deforestation across the world’s largest tropical rainforest. Deforestation in the Amazon plummeted even as agricultural production — the biggest driver of forest loss — increased. Now, that progress is going up in smoke.

Data from Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) showing a sharp uptick in the number of fires in the Amazon this year triggered headlines around the globe. Landowners use fire to clear forest illegally to make way for crops and cattle grazing, but Brazil’s populist president, Jair Bolsonaro, has effectively fanned the flames with his anti-environmentalist agenda since taking office in January. Scientists who live and work in the region were not surprised at what is happening, but INPE’s report sparked concerns in world capitals just as leaders of the G7 group of countries with the world’s biggest economies gathered for their annual summit in Biarritz, France.

Neither extinguishing the flames nor solving the underlying problem of deforestation will be easy. It doesn’t help that Bolsonaro is among those world leaders questioning whether an environmental agenda can deliver long-promised economic benefits. His development-at-any-cost policies hark back to an earlier era in which deforestation was treated as a measure of progress.

He has railed against regulation, cut the budget of Brazil’s environmental enforcement agency and advocated mining on lands belonging to Indigenous people. When news of the fires spread, Bolsonaro accused environmental groups of setting blazes to make him look bad. When G7 leaders pledged emergency funding to help put the fires out, he called it colonialism.

More efforts needed
The attention of world leaders on the Amazon is welcome, but their response is insufficient to deal with the scale of the crisis. The G7’s offer of US$22 million, initially rebuffed by Bolsonaro, seemed rushed. This sum would hardly fight the fires, let alone address the underlying problems. In the words of the former UN climate-secretariat chief Christiana Figueres, it was “a drop in the bucket”. On 6 September, at a forest-conservation summit convened by Brazil, seven Amazon countries pledged to work together — but provided few details on what they would actually do.

Paradoxically, there is already a large pot of money dedicated to tropical-forest conservation in Brazil. This is the Amazon Fund, established by Brazil in 2008 to attract international donations for conservation efforts. Since the fund’s inception, Norway has invested the lion’s share of the almost $1.3-billion total, while Germany has contributed another $68 million and Brazil’s national oil company, Petrobras of Rio de Janeiro, nearly $8 million. The funds have been used to pay for everything from research and land-use planning to law enforcement. But these investments were contingent on the government curbing deforestation, and both Germany and Norway have now suspended payments.

This decision is unlikely to change unless there is a shift in the Bolsonaro government’s priorities, but European Union countries could have some extra leverage. The EU has negotiated a trade agreement with several South American states, including Brazil. France and Ireland have threatened to refuse to ratify the deal — limiting Brazil’s exports of beef and soya to the EU — unless Bolsonaro changes his approach to the Amazon. Brazil’s agri-businesses are concerned about these developments. That gives them an opportunity to persuade Bolsonaro to re-engage with Europe over the Amazon if not doing so means that the interests of the country’s agricultural producers are on the line.

Fifteen years ago, many people assumed that the Brazilian government had little control or influence over illegal deforestation in the Amazon. We now know that is not true. Between 2004 and 2012, Brazil was able to curb deforestation by more than 80% while almost eliminating industrial-scale land-clearing.

The Amazon rainforest is a reservoir of biodiversity and carbon, which is locked up in trees and soils. Clearing and burning the forest to make way for agriculture destroys the former and sends the latter into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Brazil rightly claims sovereignty over its territory, but the forest is a global good, just as the soya beans and beef produced by farmers and ranchers there are global commodities. The responsibility for what happens on Brazil’s turf extends well beyond its borders.

Cyber warfare: IHL provides an additional layer of protection [ICRC]

IHL: Cyber Warfare

Cyber warfare: IHL provides an additional layer of protection [ICRC]
Statement delivered by Véronique Christory, Senior Arms Control Adviser for the International Committee of the Red Cross to the “Open-ended working group on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security” –

New York, 10 September 2019
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is grateful for the opportunity to address the first substantive session of the “Open-ended working group on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security”.

As we all know, technological developments offer tremendous opportunities for humanity. But they also entail risks.

In today’s armed conflicts, cyber operations are being used as a means or method of warfare. A few States have publicly acknowledged their use, and an increasing number of States are developing military cyber capabilities, whether for offensive or defensive purposes.

The ICRC monitors technological developments that could be used as means and methods of warfare and assesses the risks and challenges they generate from technical, humanitarian, military and legal perspectives. Last year, the ICRC invited experts from around the world to meet to develop a realistic assessment of the potential human cost of cyber operations. The report of this expert meeting is available online.

The cyber attacks we are seeing today generate significant economic costs, but most are not part of an armed conflict and have fortunately not caused major harm to people. However, sophisticated attacks have succeeded in disrupting the provision of essential services to the civilian population. The health-care sector appears to be particularly vulnerable to cyber attacks. Other critical civilian infrastructure, including electricity, water and sanitation systems, have also been affected. These attacks are reportedly becoming more frequent, and their severity is increasing more rapidly than anticipated.

In the ICRC’s view, there is no question that cyber operations during armed conflicts are regulated by international humanitarian law – IHL – just like any other weapon or means or methods of warfare used by a belligerent in a conflict, whether new or old.

By asserting that IHL applies, we are not encouraging the militarization of cyberspace and not legitimizing cyber warfare. Any use of force by States – cyber or kinetic – remains governed by the UN Charter, in particular the prohibition against the use of force. International disputes must be settled by peaceful means, in cyber space as in all other domains.

What IHL provides is an additional layer of protection against the effects of hostilities. For example, under IHL belligerents must respect and protect medical facilities and personnel at all times. Accordingly, cyber attacks against the health-care sector during armed conflict would in most cases violate IHL. Likewise, civilians and civilian objects, and objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population enjoy specific protection under the IHL principles of distinction, proportionality and precaution. Critical civilian infrastructure is therefore afforded strong protection against the effects of cyber attacks during armed conflicts.

Cyber operations can be used in compliance with IHL, because their technical characteristics allow them to be tailored very precisely to create effects on specific targets only.

However, cyber operations raise a number of issues regarding the interpretation of IHL. For example, only cyber operations that amount to attacks as defined in IHL are subject to the prohibition against direct attacks at civilian objects and indiscriminate and disproportionate attacks. However, the notion of cyber attack has not been fully settled under IHL. In our view, the full scope of legal protection will be afforded under key IHL rules only if States recognize that cyber operations that impair the functionality of objects are subject to the rules governing attacks under IHL.

The unique characteristics of cyberspace raise questions about the interpretation of IHL rules that States must urgently address. Affirming that IHL applies in cyber space and discussing its interpretation does not imply that new rules might not be useful or even needed. But if new rules are developed, they should build upon and strengthen existing law.

The ICRC therefore welcomes the renewed efforts of the international community, including through this open-ended working group, to study how international law applies to the use of information and communications technologies by States with a view to promoting common understandings. The ICRC stands ready to lend its expertise to such discussions.

IOM Strengthens Government Capacities for Comprehensive Care of Migrant Children in México, Whose Numbers Have More Than Doubled

Migrant Children: Care/Protection – Mexico

IOM Strengthens Government Capacities for Comprehensive Care of Migrant Children in México, Whose Numbers Have More Than Doubled
2019-09-10 15:15
México City – México’s National Migration Institute (INM) reports a 131 per cent increase in the first half of 2019 in the number of migrant children and adolescents in the country, compared with the same period last year.

During the first six months of 2019, Mexican migration authorities recorded 33,000 minors among all new arrivals, with 26 per cent of that population (8,500 boys and girls) arriving unaccompanied by an adult. These numbers do not include 21,900 adolescents returned to their country of origin with the assistance of the Mexican government during this same period.

In response, IOM has embarked on a series of regional meetings with professionals working in the child and adolescent protection systems of México’s border states. These workshops allow local governments to increase their capacity for a comprehensive and timely response to the concerns of migrant children…

During each of these encounters, analysis was shared on the conditions, characteristics and dynamics of the migratory flows crossing México. The meetings also fostered discussions on implementing the Comprehensive Care Route for the Rights of Migrant Children and Adolescents. That instrument – designed by México’s federal government, with support from IOM, UNICEF and UNHCR – defines specific institutional responsibilities, as well as weaknesses detected in existing government instruments.

“The migration of children and adolescents is a priority issue in migration governance worldwide and in the Americas,” said Alexandra Bonnie, coordinator of the IOM Mesoamerica – Caribbean programme. “This is due to the relevance of the phenomenon, the complexity of its causes and consequences, the differentiated needs for assistance and protection, and the need for a comprehensive approach to effectively protect the human rights of the people who make up this population.”

These activities are part of the Regional Migration Program: Mesoamerica – Caribbean, which is funded by the United States Department of State. At the regional level, within the framework of the Regional Conference on Migration, the said programme has allowed the design and implementation of the Regional Guidelines for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents in the Context of Migration…

US $14 billion needed to achieve universal literacy in countries with lowest literacy rates and E-9 countries

Universal Literacy

US $14 billion needed to achieve universal literacy in countries with lowest literacy rates and E-9 countries
10 September 2019
Paris, France: A new UNESCO cost analysis shows that US $14 billion(1) will be needed if the 20 countries with the lowest literacy rates(2) and the E-9 countries(3) are to achieve functional literacy and numeracy skills by 2030. The analysis highlights a funding gap of US $10 billion in the 20 countries with adult literacy rates below 50 per cent and US $4 billion among the E-9 countries, where the majority of the youth and adults with low literacy levels live.

David Atchoarena, Director of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, says: ‘Of the approximately 750 million illiterate adults worldwide, 565 million live in 29 countries. Even if an increase in domestic resources with 5 per cent of the GDP being allocated to education and 3 per cent of the education budget invested in literacy is taken into account, these countries will only achieve universal literacy by 2030 with the support of the international community. This analysis shows how far we still have to go in meeting this target, in line with commitments made by world leaders as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. I call on donors worldwide to contribute to closing the current funding gap of US $14 billion.’

The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) will present this new cost analysis to the members of the UNESCO Global Alliance for Literacy at a meeting at UNESCO in Paris, France, on 10 September 2019. The study is authored by UIL, the UNESCO Division for Policies and Lifelong Learning Systems, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, in collaboration with the Global Education Monitoring Report team.

The study shows that the majority of youth and adults with poor literacy live in the Asia-Pacific region, with approximately 80 per cent of all illiterate youth and adults living in the E-9 countries. However, most non-E-9 countries such as Afghanistan, Haiti, South Sudan and others require significant external funding support since they will not be able to cover the costs from national budgets.

The authors of the study also underline that while basic data on literacy related costs exists there is a strong need for further data collection and research in order to enable well-informed decision-making in regards to the expansion of literacy programmes.

In addition to increased funding from both national governments and international partners, there is a need to enhance the coordination, planning, management and monitoring capacities of literacy management systems. The creation of a well-functioning literacy management system that coordinates all stakeholders will be a major challenge in many countries, the study found.

Download: 2019 UNESCO literacy cost analysis (English), (French)

Technical notes
[1] The calculated costs above comprise the annual salary for instructors and are based on the estimation of 500 contact hours per learner, as estimated by the expert panel of the study.
[2] The 20 countries with literacy rates below 50 per cent are Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan.
[3] The E-9 countries are Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan.

UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM urge European states to boost education for refugee and migrant children

Education: Refugee and Migrant Children

UNHCR, UNICEF and IOM urge European states to boost education for refugee and migrant children
11 September 2019
Key challenges include lack of school spaces, teachers not adequately trained, language barriers and limited access to psychosocial support

BRUSSELS/GENEVA – Three UN agencies are calling on European States to increase resources and practical support for their school systems to ensure all refugee, asylum-seeking and migrant children can access and stay in quality education.

In a briefing paper published today, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and IOM, the International Organization for Migration, detail the obstacles children and adolescents born outside Europe face when trying to access education in Europe.

Currently the number of children and adolescents born outside Europe (including recently arrived refugee and migrant children) who leave school early is nearly twice as high compared to native-born children. Migrant children also have lower learning outcomes when they are not given adequate support. For example, around 3 in 4 native-born students attain proficiency in science, reading and math but only 3 in 5 students with a migrant background do.

Among the key challenges highlighted in the report are:
:: Insufficient financial resources
:: Not enough school spaces or teachers trained to work with refugee and migrant children
:: Language barriers

A lack of psychosocial support and limited catch-up classes. The latter are vital for children who have missed extended periods of schooling or have come from different education systems.
Children of pre-primary age (3 to 5 years old) and upper secondary age (15 years and older) are particularly vulnerable to being out of school, as they are often beyond the scope of national legislation on compulsory education.

To help States tackle these challenges and address key data gaps, the paper gives examples of good and promising practices in education across Europe and makes a series of recommendations

Saving lives with cleaner cookstoves: new International Standard just published

ISO – Global Standards for Cookstoves

By Clare Naden on 11 September 2019
Saving lives with cleaner cookstoves: new International Standard just published
Almost three billion people rely on traditional cookstoves and open fires for cooking and heating, placing them at serious risk of health disorders and premature death. The latest in ISO’s series of standards for cleaner ways of cooking has just been published.

Over 4 million people die each year from exposure to cookstove smoke, making household air pollution the fourth biggest health risk in the world [1]. It is also highly toxic for the environment. ISO has developed a number of international standards to support new technologies and solutions for cleaner methods of cooking. The latest in the range, ISO 19869, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions — Field testing methods for cookstoves, evaluates existing methods for the testing of cookstoves and provides guidance on developing new ones.

The guidance covers field testing methods that evaluate all aspects of cookstove performance including cooking power, efficiency, safety, indoor air quality, device usability and more.

Dr Ranyee Chiang, chair of the ISO technical committee that developed the standard said testing of cookstoves in real situations is essential to assess the impact on both users and the environment, thus allowing for improvements to be made.

“There are various testing protocols already in existence to assess things like fuel consumption, emissions, air pollution and durability amongst other things. However, these are mostly done for specific projects by individual groups,” she said.

Where common protocols exist such as the Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) and the Kitchen Performance Test (KPT), she explained, they have few indicators other than fuel consumption.

“Until now there is no formal international guidance on field testing protocols that address a broad range of factors. ISO 19869 is therefore designed to fill that gap.”

ISO 19869 joins other ISO documents by the same committee, namely ISO 19867-1, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions — Harmonized laboratory test protocols, Part 1: Standard test sequence for emissions and performance, safety and durability, and ISO/TR 19867-3, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions — Harmonized laboratory test protocols, Part 3: Voluntary performance targets for cookstoves based on laboratory testing, as well as ISO/TR 21276, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions — Vocabulary.

The standards support the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 3: Good health and wellbeing as well as UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 7: Affordable and clean energy and contribute to the Clean Cooking Alliance’s mission to ensure universal adoption of clean cooking solutions.

They were developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 285, Clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions, the secretariat for which is held by KEBS, ISO’s member for Kenya.

Building on Digital ID for Inclusive Services: Lessons from India [CGD]

Development: Digital ID

Building on Digital ID for Inclusive Services: Lessons from India
September 13, 2019
Center for Global Development
Alan Gelb and Anit Mukherjee

Digital ID as a development tool
India has emerged as a leader in building on its biometric digital ID (Aadhaar) to reform service and program delivery. It moved quickly to consolidate the rollout of Aadhaar, and then to embed the unique Aadhaar number into program databases. A range of applications, including digital signature and payments, was then constructed on top of the Aadhaar foundation (the India Stack). Together with partners, the Center for Global Development is analyzing the effects of Aadhaar-based reforms. India offers lessons for many other countries as their focus evolves from rolling out an ID system towards using it to improve the efficiency and inclusivity of service delivery. Some programs using Aadhaar are federally administered but others are implemented at state level. It is already clear that some states and sectors are reforming better than others, generally because of better design of the digital reforms or stronger capacity to implement them. The three programs we discuss below highlight achievements as well as challenges that need to be overcome for greater efficiency and inclusion.

An integrated trinity: the JAM
India recognized early the need to integrate Aadhaar into two other pillars for reform: mobile communications and financial access. The resulting trinity is known as JAM: Jan Dhan (financial inclusion), Aadhaar (biometric ID), and mobile connections. With 1.2 billion unique numbers, Aadhaar now covers about 95 percent of India’s population, including almost all adults. In 2014, the government announced the Jan Dhan program to achieve the goal of universal financial inclusion; by 2017, 82 percent of India’s adult population had access to a bank account, up from 56 percent when the program started. Mobile phone subscriptions increased from 17 per 100 inhabitants in 2007 to 85 in 2016, approaching universal access with a growing share of smartphones and internet-enabled devices.

The JAM trinity brings together three digital transformations and exploits synergies among them. Aadhaar enables customers and banks to easily fulfill know-your-customer (KYC) norms necessary to obtain a bank account or a mobile SIM card, while costs have been further reduced by allowing the possibility of digital or e-KYC. Aadhaar is therefore linked organically to new bank accounts and mobile connections, making them accessible to large sections of the population. In turn, much of the increase in financial access has been spurred by the Aadhaar-based reforms to social programs that routed benefits through bank accounts….

…Some cautions from Rajasthan
Our Rajasthan study revealed several problems that countries may face as they transition towards digitalized services.
:: Digitization. Existing databases may not be consistent, and errors in seeding the unique ID number in beneficiary lists can compound the problem, creating aggravations for beneficiaries or even denial of benefits. These difficulties were compounded in Rajasthan by the restructuring of program databases into the Bhamashah registry and by efforts to shrink beneficiary rolls at the same time as they were being digitized.

:: Authentication. As noted above, the reliability of biometric authentication is also a challenge. Fingerprints alone are not enough—they may not always work or work smoothly. Backup methods are needed and, indeed, the Aadhaar approach provides for other options. But sometimes these are not used by frontline service providers, who may ignore protocols and send beneficiaries away to come back another time, or possibly even deny them their benefits. The risk is arguably greatest for the most vulnerable beneficiaries, who have the least capacity to assert their rights before the frontline providers.

:: Digital literacy. Eighty percent of women heads of households cannot read or write text messages or even make a call using mobile phones. While the use of ID to create a social registry can promote inclusion and greater financial access, not everyone will have the necessary tools to participate fully in a digital environment. As these systems mature, bridging the digital capacity gap will be an important issue for the development and technology communities to address…

Malaria vaccine launched in Kenya: Kenya joins Ghana and Malawi to roll out landmark vaccine in pilot introduction

Health – Malaria

Malaria vaccine launched in Kenya: Kenya joins Ghana and Malawi to roll out landmark vaccine in pilot introduction
Homa Bay, Kenya, 13 September 2019 – The World Health Organization (WHO) congratulates the Government of Kenya for launching the world’s first malaria vaccine today in Homa Bay County, western Kenya.

The malaria vaccine pilot programme is now fully underway in Africa, as Kenya joins Ghana and Malawi to introduce the landmark vaccine as a tool against a disease that continues to affect millions of children in Africa.

The vaccine, known as RTS,S, will be available to children from 6 months of age in selected areas of the country in a phased pilot introduction. It is the first and only vaccine to significantly reduce malaria in children, including life-threatening malaria.

Malaria claims the life of one child every two minutes. The disease is a leading killer of children younger than 5 years in Kenya.

“Africa has witnessed a recent surge in the number of malaria cases and deaths. This threatens the gains in the fight against malaria made in the past two decades,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. “The ongoing pilots will provide the key information and data to inform a WHO policy on the broader use of the vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa. If introduced widely, the vaccine has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives.”
First vaccination: a day to celebrate

Distinguished health officials, community leaders and health advocates gathered in Homa Bay County – one of eight counties in Kenya where the vaccine will be introduced in selected areas – to mark this historic moment with declarations of support for the promising new malaria prevention tool and to demonstrate a ceremonial first vaccination of a 6-month-old child.

Speaking at the event, WHO Representative to Kenya Dr Rudi Eggers said: “Vaccines are powerful tools that effectively reach and better protect the health of children who may not have immediate access to the doctors, nurses and health facilities they need to save them when severe illness comes. This is a day to celebrate as we begin to learn more about what this vaccine can do to change the trajectory of malaria though childhood vaccination.”

Thirty years in the making, the vaccine is a complementary malaria control tool – to be added to the core package of WHO-recommended measures for malaria prevention, including the routine use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor spraying with insecticides and timely access to malaria testing and treatment…

Emergencies

Emergencies

Ebola – DRC+
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Disease Outbreak News (DONs) 6 September 2019
The intensity of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission in the North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri provinces remains substantial, with 57 new cases reported since the last EVD in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Disease Outbreak News Update on 29 August.

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POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 11 September 2019
:: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners and the United Arab Emirates co-hosted an informal reception as a pre-event ahead of the Polio Pledging Moment in the United Arab Emirates’-hosted Reaching the Last Mile Forum in Abu Dhabi, in November 2019. The GPEI also presented the 2019-2023 GPEI Investment Case.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan — one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case;
:: Pakistan— four wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases and 28 WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Central African Republic (CAR)— two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases and one cVDPV2-positive environmental sample;
:: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)— one cVDPV2 case.

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 14 Sep 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
6 September 2019

Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 14 Sep 2019]

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Burkina Faso [in French] – No new digest announcements identified
Burundi – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
HIV in Pakistan – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
Measles in Europe – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 14 Sep 2019]

Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

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The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 7 September 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 7 Sep 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Global efforts needed to spread digital economy benefits UN Digital Economy Report 2019

Global Digital Economy

Global efforts needed to spread digital economy benefits, UN report says
UNCTAD/PRESS/PR/2019/023
Geneva, Switzerland, (04 September 2019)
:: Digital wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few US- and China-based platforms
:: The gap between the under-connected and the hyper-digitalized countries will widen and worsen inequalities if unaddressed

Concerted global efforts are required to spread the rapidly expanding digital economy’s gains to the many people who currently reap little benefit from it, says a new United Nations report.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has released its first-ever Digital Economy Report 2019 that maps the flow, data and funds in the world’s digital economy. It outlines the enormous potential gains and possible development costs as more of the world moves, connects and buys online.

Wealth creation in the digital economy is highly concentrated in the United States and China, with the rest of the world, especially countries in Africa and Latin America, trailing considerably far behind, according to the report.

The United States and China account for 75% of all patents related to blockchain technologies, 50% of global spending on the Internet of Things (IoT), more than 75% of the cloud computing market and as much as 90% per cent of the market capitalization value of the world’s 70 largest digital platform companies (figure 1).

Under current policies and regulations, this trajectory is likely to continue, further contributing to rising inequality, warned UN Secretary-General, António Guterres.

“We must work to close the digital divide, where more than half the world has limited or no access to the Internet. Inclusivity is essential to building a digital economy that delivers for all,” Mr. Guterres said in the report…

Burgeoning data flows
Global internet protocol (IP) traffic, a proxy for data flows, has seen dramatic growth. In 1992, there was about 100 gigabytes (GB) of traffic per day. By 2017 such traffic had surged to more than 45,000 GB per second (figure 2).

Yet the world is only in the early days of the data-driven economy. By 2022 global IP traffic is projected to reach 150,700 GB per second.

The surge in data traffic reflects growth in the sheer number of people using the Internet and the uptake of frontier technologies such as blockchain, data analytics, artificial intelligence, 3D printing, IoT, automation, robotics and cloud computing.

An entirely new “data value chain” has evolved, comprising firms that support data collection, the production of insights from data, data storage, analysis and modelling, the report observes.

Platforms have an edge
…The report notes that 40% of the world’s 20 largest companies by market capitalization have a platform-based business model.

Seven “super platforms” – Microsoft, followed by Apple, Amazon, Google, Facebook, Tencent and Alibaba − account for two thirds of the total market value of the top 70 platforms.

The combined value of the platform companies with a market capitalization of more than US$100 million was estimated at more than $7 trillion in 2017 – 67% higher than in 2015, according to the report…

Developing countries risk remaining providers of raw data
The dominance of global digital platforms, their control of data, as well as their capacity to create and capture the ensuing value, accentuates concentration and consolidation rather than reducing inequalities between and within countries, the report notes.

It warns that developing countries risk becoming mere providers of raw data, while having to pay for the digital intelligence generated using their data.

If left unaddressed, the yawning gap between the under-connected and the hyper-digitalized countries will widen, and inequalities be exacerbated.

Breaking this vicious circle requires out-of-the-box thinking, the report says. One way is to consider finding an alternative configuration of the digital economy that leads to more balanced results and a fairer distribution of the gains from data and digital intelligence….

Myanmar – Joint Letter to UN Secretary-General on Rosenthal Report

Myanmar

Joint Letter to UN Secretary-General on Rosenthal Report
September 5, 2019
Dear Secretary-General,
We, the undersigned coalition of 16 international organizations, write to you regarding the recent report by Gert Rosenthal, “A Brief and Independent Inquiry into the Involvement of the United Nations in Myanmar from 2010 to 2018.”[1] As you are aware, 19 international nongovernmental organizations wrote to you on March 25, 2019, expressing support for an independent investigation into the handling of the Myanmar crisis by the UN and its agencies, with a view to drawing lessons and ensuring accountability.[2]

The Rosenthal report describes the UN’s failure to stop, mitigate, or even draw attention to violence that the UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission found amounted to crimes under international law including crimes against humanity, and warrants an investigation of the crime of genocide against Rohingya.[3] We note that the mandated scope of Mr. Rosenthal’s inquiry was extremely limited, was undertaken by one individual, did not include field visits, and excluded individual accountability.[4] These limitations do not satisfy the UN Human Rights Council’s call for a “comprehensive” investigation,[5] and are not reconcilable with the extraordinary magnitude of the crisis and the urgency of gathering “lessons learned” to improve the UN’s response in Myanmar and in similar high-risk situations going forward.

Nevertheless, we recognize your leadership in commissioning this report, releasing it publicly, and accepting all of its recommendations. This is a valuable first step. We stand ready to work with your office, as appropriate, to implement the recommendations, and to support other necessary changes and reforms.

However, we also note that the UN made similar commitments after the publication of the 2012 “Report of the Secretary-General’s Internal Review Panel on United Nations Action in Sri Lanka,” written by Charles Petrie.[6] It is clear from the Rosenthal report that the failure to fully implement the recommendations in the Petrie report set the stage for the UN’s subsequent failings in Myanmar.

It is for this reason that we encourage you to take bold action, beyond the recommendations outlined in the Rosenthal report. These actions should include:
:: promptly implementing reforms to prevent the recurrence of the “systematic” failures and “obvious dysfunctional performance” outlined in the report, and ensuring accountability for those failures as required;
:: re-energizing the Human Rights up Front initiative prompted by the Petrie report;
:: returning to your office a senior staff member dedicated to ensuring Human Rights up Front is fully implemented throughout the UN system;
:: taking practical steps to hold accountable those UN officials responsible for failures before, during, and since the 2017 ethnic cleansing campaign;
:: supporting the Resident Coordinator to ensure they have authority to implement a comprehensive Human Rights up Front strategy that takes into account the views of national and international NGOs, community-based organizations, and the human rights community, and is reflected and implemented at country level;
:: using your leadership to take concrete steps to improve coordination at all levels of the UN on the situation in Myanmar; and
:: committing to publishing annual updates on progress in adopting the recommendations of the Petrie and Rosenthal reports until they are fully implemented.

To promote greater transparency and accountability, we urge you to submit the report to the Security Council and encourage its member states to invite Mr. Rosenthal to brief the Council, the UN General Assembly, and nongovernmental organizations on this matter. We also urge you to brief the UN Human Rights Council on the report’s findings and recommendations at its 43rd session, as requested by the Council in resolution 40/29.[7]

We note that while Mr. Rosenthal’s review covers 2010 to 2018, many of the issues raised regarding the failings of “quiet diplomacy” are ongoing. A number of actors were also responsible for failing to take steps that may have prevented or limited atrocities, including individual UN member states and, above all, the Security Council, which has abdicated its collective responsibility to act under the UN Charter, despite your September 2, 2017 letter to the Security Council President urging concrete action.[8]

It is vital that your office act once again and quickly. Specifically, we call on you to set a clear, unifying strategy for the UN Country Team in Myanmar that places human rights concerns at the center of its strategy.

With elections scheduled in Myanmar in 2020, there is a real and serious risk of more violence against the Rohingya, other Muslim communities, and other vulnerable groups; heightened repression against critics of the military and government; and increased violations of international humanitarian law in the country’s internal armed conflicts with ethnic armed groups. Against this backdrop, it is crucial that under your direction UN bodies operate with a consistent and principled voice that prioritizes human rights.

We would be happy to discuss these issues and next steps with you and your team. As Mr. Rosenthal states, UN reforms “will be on trial” in Myanmar going forward.

We hope that you can make past failures in Myanmar a turning point in the UN’s history—the moment when the lessons were finally learned.

Yours sincerely,

ALTSEAN-Burma
Amnesty International
Article 19
ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR)
Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
Burma Campaign UK
Burma Human Rights Network
Fortify Rights
Global Justice Center
Human Rights Watch
International Campaign for the Rohingya
International Commission of Jurists
International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights (JBI)
Justice for All/Burma Task Force
Progressive Voice

Africa Public Health Foundation to Address Epidemic Preparedness and Response

Health – Epidemic Response

Africa Public Health Foundation to Address Epidemic Preparedness and Response
· An acute public health event in Africa is reported every four days and the costs of infectious disease crises are rising
· The new Africa Public Health Foundation will support the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
· New foundation will facilitate public-private cooperation on strengthening health security across the continent

Cape Town, South Africa, 5 September 2019 – The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), in partnership with the African Union and World Economic Forum, today announces the establishment of the Africa Public Health Foundation (APHF). The foundation will facilitate public-private cooperation on supporting Africa CDC’s mission to strengthen health and economic security.

Disease outbreaks are serious health security threats and are increasingly an impediment to economic growth in Africa. The cost, for example, of the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak to three affected west African countries is estimated to be $53 billion. Overall, the annual global cost of moderately severe to severe pandemics is roughly $570 billion, or 0.7% of global income – a cost in the same order of magnitude as climate change.

“We are in a new era of epidemic risk. Mitigating risk and impact of epidemics on lives and livelihoods requires an all-hands-on-deck approach, engaging all sectors,” said Ryan Morhard, Lead, Global Health Security at the World Economic Forum.

The APHF will align itself with the mission and vision of the Africa CDC to support member states build their capacity to better detect and respond to diseases outbreaks and emergencies. It will advance public-private cooperation to strengthen health systems, develop the healthcare workforce, support innovations for public health, and advocate for robust policies, regulations and partnerships for resource mobilization.

The creation of the APHF further delivers on the declaration made by the Heads of States and Governments (HoSG) of African countries in July 2017, tasking Africa CDC, the African Union Commission (AUC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) with accelerating the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR). The regulations were established to support member states strengthen their health systems to better prepare and respond to emergencies and disease threats.

Bernard Haufiku, Minister of Health of Namibia (2015-2018) and Adviser to the President of Namibia, will be taking on the role of Founder of APHF…

Essential Nutrition Actions: mainstreaming nutrition throughout the life course – WHO

Nutrition

Essential Nutrition Actions: mainstreaming nutrition throughout the life course
Research
World Health Organization
2019 :: 191 pages
PDF: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/326261/9789241515856-eng.pdf?ua=1
Overview
Primary health care is the foundation of universal health coverage; it is a whole-of-society approach to health and well-being, centred on the needs and preferences of individuals, families and communities. Nutrition is a foundation for health and well-being for all, leaving no one behind, and a critical component of primary health care, through its promotion and prevention, addressing its determinants, and a people-centred approach.

Healthier populations are achieved through multisectoral actions that are not limited to health systems alone, though often using the stewardship, advocacy and regulatory functions of health ministries. Optimal nutrition for individual health and development bridges interventions by health systems to improve the health of populations.

Interventions addressing health through the life-course (covering women, men, infants, children, adolescents and older persons) contribute to the delivery of integrated primary health care. A life-course approach is critical to operationalize the worldwide commitment to people-centred primary health care.

This publication’s primary purpose is to provide a compilation of actions to address malnutrition in all its forms, in a concise and user-friendly format to help in decision-making processes for integration of nutrition interventions in national health policies, strategies, and plans based on country-specific needs and global priorities.

IMF Executive Board: Governors Remove Age Limit for the Position of Managing Director

Governance – Ageism

IMF Executive Board: Governors Remove Age Limit for the Position of Managing Director
September 5, 2019
The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) made the following statement today:

“The Board of Governors has approved the proposal by the Executive Board to remove the age limit for the position of IMF Managing Director. Approval of the proposal required a simple majority of the votes cast, with a minimum participation requirement of a majority of Governors holding two-thirds of the total voting power. Voting ran from August 21 to September 4.

“Since 1951, the IMF’s By-Laws had prohibited the appointment of a candidate aged 65 or over as Managing Director, and had also prohibited the Managing Director from serving past his/her 70th birthday. The amendment to the By-Laws adopted by the Board of Governors, which is effective immediately, brings the Managing Director’s terms of appointment into line with those of members of the IMF Executive Board, which the Managing Director chairs, and those of the President of the World Bank Group, who are not subject to an age limit.

“The IMF Executive Board is engaged in the selection of a successor to outgoing Managing Director Christine Lagarde, who will step down on September 12. Nominations to the position close on September 6, 2019, and we intend to complete the selection process by October 4.”

Widespread male sex bias in mammal fossil and museum collections – PNAS

Featured Journal Content – Heritage Stewardship

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/
[Accessed 7 Sep2019]

Widespread male sex bias in mammal fossil and museum collections
Graham Gower, Lindsey E. Fenderson, Alexander T. Salis, Kristofer M. Helgen, Ayla L. van Loenen, Holly Heiniger, Emilia Hofman-Kamińska, Rafał Kowalczyk, Kieren J. Mitchell, Bastien Llamas, and Alan Cooper
PNAS first published September 3, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1903275116
Significance
The extent to which the fossil record provides an accurate picture of past life is an important issue that is often difficult to assess. We genetically sexed 277 mammalian subfossils using high-throughput sequencing of ancient DNA, and found a strong male bias (approx. 75%) in Pleistocene bison (n=186) and brown bears (n=91), matching signals previously reported for mammoth. Similarly, a male bias was also found in species of nearly all mammal orders in 4 large museum collections. For mammals, we suggest both male behavior and appearance can lead to increased chances of representation in fossil and museum collections, and this previously unrecognized sex bias could have substantial implications for views of past population and ecological processes.
Abstract
A recent study of mammoth subfossil remains has demonstrated the potential of using relatively low-coverage high-throughput DNA sequencing to genetically sex specimens, revealing a strong male-biased sex ratio [P. Pečnerová et al., Curr. Biol. 27, 3505–3510.e3 (2017)]. Similar patterns were predicted for steppe bison, based on their analogous female herd-based structure. We genetically sexed subfossil remains of 186 Holarctic bison (Bison spp.), and also 91 brown bears (Ursus arctos), which are not female herd-based, and found that ∼75% of both groups were male, very close to the ratio observed in mammoths (72%). This large deviation from a 1:1 ratio was unexpected, but we found no evidence for sex differences with respect to DNA preservation, sample age, material type, or overall spatial distribution. We further examined ratios of male and female specimens from 4 large museum mammal collections and found a strong male bias, observable in almost all mammalian orders.

We suggest that, in mammals at least, 1) wider male geographic ranges can lead to considerably increased chances of detection in fossil studies, and 2) sexual dimorphic behavior or appearance can facilitate a considerable sex bias in fossil and modern collections, on a previously unacknowledged scale. This finding has major implications for a wide range of studies of fossil and museum material.

Emergencies

Emergencies

Ebola – DRC+
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

No regular weekly updates identified.

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Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP announces receipt of Breakthrough Therapy designation from FDA for mAb114
MIAMI, Sept. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP, a closely held biotechnology company, today announced that the Food and Drug Administration has recently granted mAb114, an experimental treatment for Ebola, Breakthrough Therapy designation…

“The FDA’s decision to grant mAb114 Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of Ebola reflects a recognition of the promising efficacy and safety data that has been collected to date for this investigational drug.  We plan to work closely with the FDA as we continue to advance our development program for mAb114.  The substantial survival improvement seen with mAb114 in the PALM trial catalyzed this important regulatory milestone.  We are grateful to our PALM partners for all of their help in advancing treatments for Ebola patients and our ultimate gratitude goes to the study’s participants and their families.  Their trust and support will change the course of this disease,” said Wendy Holman, CEO of Ridgeback Biotherapeutics.

About Pamoja Tulinde Maisha (PALM):
The PALM study is co-sponsored and funded by the INRB (Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the US National Institutes of Health and carried out by an international research consortium coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO).  The Ebola treatment centers in the PALM trial have been overseen by staff from the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB); the DRC Ministry of Health; and three medical humanitarian organizations:  the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA), the International Medical Corps (IMC), and Médicins Sans Frontières (MSF). 

About mAb114:
mAb114 is a monoclonal antibody — a protein that binds to a single target on a pathogen — isolated from a human survivor of the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, a city in the DRC…

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POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 28 August 2019
:: The Technical Advisory Group on Polio Eradication in Pakistan met on 29 – 30 August to discuss the challenges faced by the programme and propose recommendations for transforming key aspects in the programme strategy for polio eradication.
:: An Investment case has been launched in order to ensure the GPEI’s funding requirements are fully financed until eradication and certification.
[See Milestones above for detail]
:: The August Polio News with the latest news, polio in numbers and funding updates is now available.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan — two wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases,
:: Myanmar – one circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) case,
:: Angola – two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases,
:: Ethiopia – one cVDPV2 case;
:: Democratic Republic of the Congo – six (cVDPV2 cases).

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 7 Sep2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Local vaccinators build trust in Beni, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
2 September 2019 Vaccination team 29 is composed entirely of Congolese health workers

Syrian Arab Republic
:: WHO statement on attacks against health care in north-west Syria 2 September 2019

Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 7 Sep2019]

Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV
:: WHO statement on the tenth meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee regarding MERS
3 September 2015

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Burkina Faso [in French] – No new digest announcements identified
Burundi – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
HIV in Pakistan – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
Measles in Europe – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 7 Sep2019]

Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syrian Arab Republic: Recent Developments in Northwestern Syria Situation Report No. 11 – as of 6 September 2019

Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

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The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 31 August 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 31 Aug 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]