State of World Population 2019 – UNFPA

State of World Population 2019
UNFINISHED BUSINESS the pursuit of rights and choices FOR ALL
UNFPA, 2019 :: 180 pages
PDF: https://www.unfpa.org/publications/state-world-population-2019

Press Release
World must work harder to secure sexual and reproductive rights for all, says new UNFPA report
UNITED NATIONS, New York, 10 April 2019—The global reproductive rights movement that began in the 1960s transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of women, empowering them to govern their own bodies and shape their own futures. But despite the gains made over the past 50 years, since the establishment of UNFPA, the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency, the world still has a long way to go before rights and choices are claimed by all, according to the State of World Population 2019, released by UNFPA today.

On the journey towards rights and choices, women and girls have faced social and economic barriers every step of the way. A coalition of civil society, activists, and organizations such as UNFPA have been helping tear down those barriers.

The efforts of the reproductive rights movements have dramatically reduced the number of unintended pregnancies and maternal deaths, and have cleared the way for healthier, more productive lives for untold millions, the new UNFPA report says.

The report traces advances in reproductive health on the anniversaries of two important milestones. It has been 50 years since UNFPA began operations in 1969 as the first United Nations agency to address population growth and reproductive health needs. It is also the 25th anniversary of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), where 179 governments called for all people to have access to comprehensive reproductive health care, including voluntary family planning, and safe pregnancy and childbirth services.

Much has been achieved since 1969, says the report. The average number of births per woman was 4.8 then, compared to 2.9 in 1994 and 2.5 today; fertility rate in the least developed countries dropped from 6.8 in 1969, to 5.6 in 1994 and 3.9 in 2019; and the number of women who died from pregnancy-related causes has decreased from 369 per 100,000 live births in 1994, to 216 in 2015. In addition, 24 per cent of women used modern contraceptives in 1969, compared to 52 per cent in 1994 and 58 per cent in 2019.

However, reproductive rights are still out of reach for too many women, including the more than 200 million women who want to prevent a pregnancy but cannot access modern contraceptive information and services.

“Despite the increasing availability of contraceptives over the years, hundreds of millions of women today still have no access to them, and to the reproductive choices that come with them,” said UNFPA Executive Director Dr. Natalia Kanem. “Without access, they lack the power to make decisions about their own bodies, including whether or when to become pregnant.”

“The lack of this power—which influences so many other facets of life, from education to income to safety—leaves women unable to shape their own futures,” added Dr. Kanem.

The report includes, for the first time, data on women’s ability to make decisions over three key areas: sexual intercourse with their partner, contraception use and health care. Across the 51 countries where this information is available, only 57 per cent of women who are married or in a relationship are able to make their own choices over all three of these areas.

“I call on world leaders to re-commit to the promises made in Cairo 25 years ago to ensure sexual and reproductive health and rights for all,” said Dr. Kanem. “The world will have a historic opportunity to complete the unfinished business of the ICPD at the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 to be held in Kenya in November, where governments, activists and stakeholders will rally to protect the gains made so far, and fulfill the promise of the ICPD agenda, so that no one is left behind.”…

Facts and figures from the report:
:: Number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births, worldwide: 369 in 1994; 216 in 2015.
:: Global modern contraceptive prevalence rate: 24 in 1969; 52 in 1994; 58 in 2019.
:: Global fertility rate, or average number of births per woman: 4.8 in 1969; 2.9 in 1994; 2.5 in 2019.
:: The highest unmet needs for sexual and reproductive health services are among marginalized groups, including minority ethnic groups; young people; unmarried people; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people; people with disabilities; and the rural and urban poor.
:: An estimated 800 million women alive today were married when they were children.
:: Every day, more than 500 women and girls in countries with emergency settings die during pregnancy and childbirth

Drive to mobilise ‘trillions’ through private finance for development ‘completely unrealistic’ – new ODI research

SDGs – Development Finance

Drive to mobilise ‘trillions’ through private finance for development ‘completely unrealistic’ – new ODI research
Press release | 10 April 2019
New report on blended finance finds policy makers have unrealistic expectations about how much private money can be mobilized.

The drive to use aid and other public funds to mobilise trillions of dollars of private investment in developing countries is well off target, new research from the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) has found.

A major new report on the use of blended finance, the term used when public-sector development funds are used to encourage private investments in poorer countries, has found policy makers have unrealistic expectations about how much private money can be mobilised. It also reveals private investment is heavily concentrated in middle-income countries (MICs), with very little going to low-income countries (LICs).

The report, ‘Blended finance in the poorest countries: the need for a better approach’, finds that for every $1 of public money invested in this way mobilises just $0.37 of private finance in LICs and just $0.75 in all developing countries.

The report finds only 1% of the total private finance mobilised by the UK government, including through the CDC Group, the UK government’s DFI, was mobilised in the poorest countries during the period 2012 to 2015.

Lead author Samantha Attridge, Senior Research Fellow at ODI, said: ‘Our research shows that an urgent reality check on blended finance is needed. The current approach is not leveraging significant amounts of private investment overall and very little for low-income countries. The “billions to trillions” mantra is completely unrealistic without significant changes to the system.

‘Donors and development finance institutions (DFIs) need to make urgent changes to their business models and risk appetites to get anywhere near the amounts required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

‘They also need to focus more on supporting developing country governments to build a more conducive investment climate for investable companies and projects. Until they do that, aid spent on blended finance risks diverting much needed resources away from the poorest countries.’’…

.

Research reports and studies
Blended finance in the poorest countries: the need for a better approach
| April 2019 | Samantha Attridge and Lars Engen
The need to mobilise private finance is at the heart of international discussions on how to finance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and move the needle from ‘billions’ of dollars in development aid to ‘trillions’ of dollars in investment.
With an estimated SDG financing gap of $2.5 trillion a year in developing countries alone, the international development community is placing an increasing emphasis on blended finance. This report aims to provide hard evidence to inform the discussion on the role of blended finance in plugging the SDG financing gap in developing countries.

We found that:
:: Expectations that blended finance can bridge the SDG financing gap are unrealistic: ‘billions-to-billions’ is more plausible than ‘billions to trillions’.
:: The big push on blended finance risks undermining the poverty eradication agenda in the poorest countries.
:: Policy-makers need a better understanding of the poverty and development impact of blended finance, as well as its true costs, to ensure value for money and effective policy-making and allocation of aid.
:: Multilateral development banks and development finance institutions need to collectively adopt a more distinct and tailored approach to blended finance in low-income countries.

Forced Migration Review – March 2019 : Special Issue Theme: Education: needs, rights and access in displacement

Featured Journal Content

Forced Migration Review (FMR)
FMR 60 March 2019
https://www.fmreview.org/GuidingPrinciples20/contents
Special Issue Theme: Education: needs, rights and access in displacement
Education is one of the most important aspects of our lives – vital to our development, our understanding and our personal and professional fulfilment throughout life. In times of crisis, however, millions of displaced young people miss out on months or years of education, and this is damaging to them and their families, as well as to their societies, both in the short and long term. This issue of FMR includes 29 articles on Education, and two ‘general’ articles.

Foreword: Education – a humanitarian and development imperative
Manuel Bessler
For far too long, donors and the international community have neglected education in humanitarian response. Switzerland was no exception. Food, water, health and shelter were the usual priorities during emergencies, while education was considered more of a long-term objective to be tackled by national governments and development agencies once a crisis was over.

However, we were wrong. We simply ignored the families’ tendencies to see their children’s education – often interrupted or absent – as a priority need in displacement. We were not sufficiently aware of education’s life-sustaining and protective role during conflict and crisis. We underestimated the impact education can have on peaceful coexistence and misjudged the social and economic consequences of the lack of education during displacement for both host and home countries…

This edition of Forced Migration Review is timely and necessary. In a time of unprecedented displacement, rising hostilities and an increase in protracted conflicts, it is important to recall what is at stake if displaced girls and boys are prevented from going to school. Education is the most powerful means of breaking cycles of vulnerability and poverty, and without education there can be no sustainable development. The young displaced generation has enormous potential for contributing to society. However, greater international commitment is needed to support countries dealing with rising population movements. Eighty-five per cent of refugees live in developing countries that already struggle with over-stretched education systems. We need to provide assistance to countries to ensure that displaced children can access local schools. We need to provide support to national education ministries, teachers and parents so that both displaced and host-community children can learn and grow up in safe, child-friendly environments. We need to find creative solutions to enable children and youth who have missed out on learning to catch up. All this requires the joint action of the humanitarian and development communities, NGOs, multi- and bilateral agencies and the private sector. Switzerland calls on others to follow suit by prioritising education in policy making, funding and action on the ground. The provision of education for displaced children and youth is both an immediate emergency response and an effective way to work towards durable solutions during protracted displacement.

[29 articles on this theme included in this issue]

UNESCO – Launch of the Global Alliance of Open Access Scholarly Communication Platforms to democratize knowledge

Knowledge Platforms

UNESCO – Launch of the Global Alliance of Open Access Scholarly Communication Platforms to democratize knowledge
12 April 2019
A new momentum is emerging in the dissemination of scientific knowledge worldwide.

In Inclusive Knowledge Societies, people have ready access to information and communications resources, in languages and formats that suit them, and possess the skills to interpret and make use of them. Within this framework, promoting access to scientific scholarship (in the broadest sense) has remained a central challenge to most Member States. UNESCO, with its partners, continues to pursue this objective through its programmes on Open Science and Open Access as well as in partnership with other key actors .

At a session organized by UNESCO on 8th April at the WSIS Forum 2019 in Geneva, coordinators of six platforms – AmeliCA, AJOL, Érudi, J-STAGE, OpenEdition, and SciELO Network agreed to join forces to democratize scientific knowledge following a multicultural, multi-thematic and multi-lingual approach. The Global Alliance of Open Access Scholarly Communication Platforms (GLOALL) was launched with a recognition of the principle that scientific and scholarly knowledge is a global public good essential for the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The session directly addressed WSIS action line C3 on Access to Information and Knowledge and action line C7 on E-Science.

In addition to fostering democratization of knowledge generated in ALL places, subjects and languages, the GLOALL carries a vision to promote the development of multilingual scholarly communication standards, products and services. The alliance seeks to enhance operational and subject interoperability in order to strengthen engagement with research worldwide…

In the shorter term, GLOALL will generate a unified vision for the alliance based on mutual trust; share experience, technology and know-how that can enhance and foster the development of tools, contents and practices for inclusive Open Access. It will work to improve interoperability among platforms and address language barriers for the knowledge uptake. It will also work together to curate content that addresses SDGs.

Humanitarian mechanism for vaccines used for first time in Europe to counter high prices –

Humanitarian Response – Vaccines

Humanitarian mechanism for vaccines used for first time in Europe to counter high prices –
:: A new humanitarian mechanism for vaccines has been used for the first time in Europe, allowing MSF to vaccinate refugee children in Greece at an affordable price.
:: Children were vaccinated with the pnemococcal conjugate vaccine, which is usually prohibitively expensive in Europe.
:: We urge for more vaccines to be included in the humanitarian mechanism, allowing children to be protected against more diseases.

Press Release 12 April 2019 Athens — Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has started vaccinating refugee children on the Greek islands of Chios, Samos and Lesvos using a programme set up to allow children in humanitarian emergencies to access the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) at an affordable price.
This marks the first time the ‘Humanitarian Mechanism’ is used in a high-income country—the programme offers the vaccine at a special reduced price of about US$9 per child (for the three doses needed for full immunisation) for humanitarian use by civil society organisations and UN agencies. Pneumonia remains the single largest killer of children under five worldwide, and children living in precarious conditions—including those in refugee camps—are at particularly high risk.

Emergencies

Emergencies

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 10 April 2019
:: The report by the Director-General World Health Organization on the eradication of poliomyelitis is online, ahead of the 72nd World Health Assembly scheduled for May 2019. The report summarizes the remaining challenges to a polio-free world and presents the main elements of the new GPEI Polio Endgame Strategy 2019-2023.
:: An Independent Outbreak Response Assessment (OBRA) took place in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo on 5 April 2019. The OBRA was carried out to evaluate the quality of the response to the VDPV2 epidemic in the DRC and make the necessary recommendations to interrupt the transmission as soon as possible.
:: The Inaugural WHO Partners Forum convened in Stockholm, Sweden between 8-11 April 2019 with an aim to start a series of conversations with partners to help WHO meet the strategic goals as committed in the Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13) for 2019-2023. The two-day meeting highlighted WHO’s impact on global health, encouraged support from WHO partners to enhance the quality and quantity of resources, and take stock of the innovations and lessons learned to strengthen partnerships and financing activities.  Read more here.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Pakistan – four WPV1-positive environmental samples

Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 13 Apr 2019]

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis
:: Bi‐weekly Situation Report 6 – 2 April 2019 pdf, 734kb

Cyclone Idai
:: Fast rollout of cholera vaccines for people in need in Mozambique 10 April 2019, Maputo
[See Milestones above for detail]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee for Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 12th April 2019
12 April 2019 Statement Geneva
:: 36: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu 9 April 2019
:: DONs – Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo 11 April 2019
[See Ebola above for detail]

South Sudan
:: The Ministry of Health with support from WHO and partners investigates a cluster of unexplained deaths in Jie payam, Kapoeta East 8 April 2019

Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 13 Apr 2019]

Brazil (in Portugese)
:: Brasil lança campanha de vacinação contra a influenza 10 de abril de 2019

Cameroon 
:: As internally displaced persons reach nearly 1 million in Ethiopia, WHO reinforces medical supplies 8 April 2019

Iraq
:: WHO sends shipment of kits and medical supplies to Missan governorate Baghdad 8 April 2019 – Responding to the needs of the Directorate of Health in Missan following the recent floods that hit the area, WHO, with the generous support of donors, sent a large consignment of emergency kits and medical supplies on 4 April to support the Directorate, 304 kilometres south east of Baghdad…

Libya
:: Amid Tripoli clashes, WHO rushes medical aid to the wounded in Libya Tripoli, 11 April – As clashes around Tripoli continued and the number of wounded rose to the hundreds, WHO reacted swiftly to provide field hospitals and ambulances with critically-needed life saving supplies.

occupied Palestinian territory 
:: Mobile clinic brings mammography services to remote communities in the West Bank
April 2019

Sudan
:: Sudan prepares to vaccinate over 11 million children against measles and polio 8 April 2019

Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 13 Apr 2019]
Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018 – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Lao People’s Democratic Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Peru – No new digest announcements identified
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO AFRO – Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin
Week 14: 01-07 April 2019
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 65 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
:: Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Cyclone Idai in Southern Africa (Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi)
:: Humanitarian crisis in Cameroon
:: Humanitarian crisis in Ethiopia.

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
CYCLONE IDAI
:: 12 April 2019  Mozambique: Cyclone Idai & Floods Situation Report No. 10
:: 12 April 2019  Zimbabwe: Floods Situation Report No. 2, As of 10 April 2019
:: 10 April 2019  Southern Africa: Cyclone Idai Snapshot (as of 9 April 2019)

The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
__________________________________________________
Week ending 6 April 2019

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice
david.r.curry@ge2p2center.net

PDF: The Sentinel_ period ending 6 Apr 2019

Contents
:: Week in Review  [See selected posts just below]
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities   [see PDF]
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals  [see PDF]

Belgium Apologizes for Kidnapping Children From African Colonies

Human Rights :: Colonial Rule/Reparations

Belgium Apologizes for Kidnapping Children From African Colonies
By Milan Schreuer
The New York Times, April 4, 2019
BRUSSELS — Belgium apologized on Thursday for the kidnapping, segregation, deportation and forced adoption of thousands of children born to mixed-race couples during its colonial rule of Burundi, Congo and Rwanda.

The apology is the first time that Belgium has recognized any responsibility for what historians say was the immense harm the country inflicted on the Central African nations, which it colonized for eight decades. Prime Minister Charles Michel offered the apology on Thursday afternoon in front of a plenary session of Parliament, which was attended by dozens of people of mixed race in the visitors gallery.

“Throughout Belgian colonial Africa, a system of targeted segregation of métis and their families was maintained by the Belgian state and acts were committed that violated the fundamental rights of peoples,” he said, using the term for mixed-race people.
“This is why, in the name of the federal government, I recognize the targeted segregation of which métis people were victims” under Belgian colonial rule in Africa, and “the ensuing policy of forced kidnapping” after independence, he added.
“In the name of the federal government,” Mr. Michel said, “I present our apologies to the métis stemming from the Belgian colonial era and to their families for the injustices and the suffering inflicted upon them.”

“I also wish to express our compassion for the African mothers, from whom the children were taken,” he said.

The prime minister said that the Belgian government would make resources available to finance additional research on the issue, open up its colonial archives to métis people and offer administrative help to those seeking to gain access to their official records and seeking Belgian nationality…

[Official transcript of PM’s address to Belgian Parliament not yet posted]

More Than 70 Organizations Oppose Proposed Cut-Off in [U.S.] Foreign Assistance to Central America

ODA

More Than 70 Organizations Oppose Proposed Cut-Off in Foreign Assistance to Central America
Cutting off poverty-alleviating and violence-reducing assistance in Central America runs counter to American values and interests.
Apr 1, 2019
InterAction and over 70 member organizations issued the below statement in response to announcements by the Trump Administration that it is ending foreign assistance programs in the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras:

“By cutting off poverty-alleviating and violence-reducing assistance to the people and civil society organizations of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, the Trump Administration is taking a step that undermines its own policy goals and runs counter to American values and interests. For years, leaders from both parties have supported U.S. development and humanitarian aid to Central America. That is because these relatively small investments address the grinding poverty, instability and human rights concerns at the root of displacement. The current levels of violence and suffering in the Northern Triangle of Central America risk severe further deterioration if development and humanitarian assistance is withdrawn.

“Sadly, the unpredictability and volatility that stem from such chaotic policy decisions can erode the effectiveness of foreign assistance. The Administration frequently views U.S. foreign assistance only in transactional terms and not as part of a long-term strategy.

“In response to this short-sighted and irresponsible decision, we urge Congress to demonstrate strong bipartisan support for aid to Central America.”

Reactions from partner organizations:
Alliance for Peacebuilding
CARE USA
Catholic Relief Services
Mercy Corps
Modernizing Foreign Assistance Network (MFAN)
PLAN International USA
U.S. Global Leadership Coalition (USGLC)
World Vision

Statement of INGOs in Myanmar on the situation in Rakhine

Myanmar

Statement of INGOs in Myanmar on the situation in Rakhine
Published 01. Apr 2019
As international NGOs supporting communities throughout Rakhine State, we express our deep concern with the continued fighting between the Myanmar Security and the Arakan Army Forces. This conflict is causing civilian casualties, displacing communities, and worsening the already precarious humanitarian situation in central and northern Rakhine State. Echoing our previous statement from January 2019, we urge all parties to the conflict to ensure the protection of civilians in compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights law

Compounding the impact of conflict and displacement on communities, since January 10, 2019, the Government of Myanmar has imposed restrictions on the access of humanitarian and development agencies in five key townships (Kyauktaw, Ponnagyun, Buthidaung, Maungdaw and Rathedaung in Rakhine State). Newly imposed restrictions are also affecting access to rural areas in Mrauk U township.

At least 95,000 people living in these conflict affected areas, are no longer able to access a number of basic and essential services. Health care services, education and access to clean water have all been jeopardized. Livelihood programmes, agricultural support and other development efforts have also been suspended, impacting the food security and wellbeing of these communities. While some relief activities targeting newly displaced populations have been permitted to proceed, significant gaps remain.

We acknowledge the Government’s primary responsibility for ensuring the safety of humanitarian and development actors. However, the differences in the security situation across Rakhine State necessitates a differentiated approach – one that ensures access to locations not directly impacted by fighting and recent security incidents. A blanket security approach for entire townships deprives populations in need of assistance and basic services.

Local and international organizations should be granted rapid, unfettered and sustained access to all affected populations to independently assess needs and provide comprehensive assistance and protection to all communities in accordance with international humanitarian principles.

ACTED
Action Contre la Faim
CARE
Consortium of Dutch NGOs
Danish Refugee Council
Lutheran World Federation
Mercy Corps
Norwegian Refugee Council
Oxfam
Peace Winds Japan
People in Need
Plan International
Relief International
Save the Children
Solidarites International
World Vision

Current and Future Challenges for Children Across the World

Featured Journal Content

JAMA
April 2, 2019, Vol 321, No. 13, Pages 1229-1320
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx
Viewpoint
Current and Future Challenges for Children Across the World
Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, MBBS, FRCPCH, PhD; Robert E. Black, MD, MPH
free access
JAMA. 2019;321(13):1251-1252. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.1840
There have been substantial gains in global health in the past decade. Access to energy, communications, and clean water has increased and extreme poverty has continued to decline (from >40% in 1990 to <10% in 2018).1 Child mortality has declined substantially, with approximately 10 million children younger than 5 years dying in 2000 compared with 5.4 million in 2017.2 Gains in the health of children worldwide accelerated in part because of the global compacts made in the Millennium Development Goals. The goals were developed by the United Nations system and signed by 189 countries in September 2000 to reduce maternal and child mortality by 75% and 66%, respectively, from an estimated 0.5 million maternal deaths and 12.4 million child deaths annually in 1990. These global gains were possible because of alignment among development agencies, academia, national governments, and community-based organizations for introducing globally evidence-based and effective interventions, such as vaccines, effective care of sick infants, and other interventions.

Notwithstanding these gains, many challenges remain. The daily toll of nearly 15 000 deaths of children before their fifth birthday, with many of these deaths preventable, is unacceptably high, and progress in reducing newborn deaths and stillbirths is especially inadequate. In addition, the 0.9 million annual deaths among older children (5-9 years) and young adolescents (10-14 years) have received relatively little attention.2 Although ample preventive and curative interventions addressing newborn, child, and adolescent health exist, there is no strategy to integrate planning and health care for children in health systems and their linkage to sectors outside of health, such as education, social safety nets, housing, and environmental health. Inequalities persist and are often associated with poverty, conflict, migration, ethnicity, and urbanization. These challenges are insufficiently highlighted in current global strategies or in action plans for child health and development.

In addition, global child health efforts still mainly focus on survival. The importance of early child development and the effects of poor nutrition on children for long-term outcomes were absent in the Millennium Development Goals. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by 193 countries in September 20153 are ambitious, advocate for more holistic definitions of health, and include aspirational targets addressing social determinants of health across diverse sectors. The increased recognition that cognitive abilities, health, and productivity in adults are the consequence of exposures and opportunities in childhood has led to calls for investments in improving maternal and child nutrition, nurturing care of children, and involvement of other sectors, such as education, leading to enhanced human capital, defined as the stock of knowledge, skills, attitudes, health, and other personal characteristics that enable individuals to realize their potential as productive and responsible members of society.4

Early exposures of children to violence, stress, and displacement could have serious long-term consequences. These include children and families living in the midst of conflict, in neighborhoods of high crime, as well as refugees and migrants. Such considerations for improving the health of women and children using the basic principles of human rights5 should not be restricted to low- and middle-income countries. The recent episodes of forced separation of children from migrant families seeking asylum at the US-Mexican border and preventable child deaths highlight the importance of these concepts even in the best-developed democracies.

The prioritization of noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes, in the Sustainable Development Goals is welcome but also presents challenges. The prevention of many noncommunicable diseases needs to begin in childhood with healthful diets and exercise and avoidance of risks, such as smoking. Current programs for child health and nutrition are poorly linked to noncommunicable disease prevention but offer an opportunity to address these emerging public health priorities in childhood with benefits for current and future generations. These approaches are integral to optimizing child health and not additional or optional strategies for action.

The current global focus on universal health coverage and primary health care by the World Health Organization should be a cornerstone for accelerating child health and development, yet there are strong signals that attention may be shifting. Concentrating on such issues may lead to a disproportionate allocation of public resources to tertiary health facilities serving urban adult populations, especially in countries with limited national allocations for health and diminishing donor assistance. It is notable that the most recent World Health Organization executive board resolution on universal health coverage adopted for discussion at the World Health Assembly in May 2019 does not mention children or child health—even once.6 Neither do the long-awaited restructuring and new initiatives of the World Health Organization mention mothers and children or child health explicitly.7 One challenge is ensuring a focus on child health without distraction by the large number of strategies involving health issues such as programs to treat noncommunicable diseases affecting older populations.

What is needed to improve child global health in the future?

First, to promote global child health and accelerate progress to eliminate preventable child deaths by 2030 and improve child development, it is imperative to continue to focus on quality and coverage of primary care and preventive programs8 and on reaching marginalized and at-risk populations, especially those living in insecure environments or conflict zones. This will require additional resources and different approaches to delivery of services, including engagement of communities, especially women, and working with a range of lay health workers in community settings.

Second, the move beyond survival to enhance or improve early child development is welcome. Such efforts require developing strategies for implementing nurturing care of children, including health, nutrition, and social protection, and ensuring that interventions linking early child health with the care of school-aged children and adolescents are prioritized.9 Community and outreach programs designed to reach marginalized populations must be prioritized and interventions beyond health services expanded, such as living conditions, environmental exposures, food security, and education.

Third, a revolution in information systems is needed to improve the monitoring, evaluation and population effects of health services. For example, registration of births and deaths, with information on the medical and social causes of death, along with illness surveillance, would enable targeting resources and responses to health threats. Granular information is critical to identify and reach the most vulnerable populations; child mortality is increasingly concentrated in certain hot spots that require focused attention.10 Better data and feedback are critical to optimize coverage and quality of services in both the public and private health sectors and to determine the most cost-effective integrated interventions from birth through adolescence.

The next global challenge is to develop a unifying plan for reducing the gap in child health and development between resource-limited and resource-rich countries as well as gaps within countries. Addressing the social determinants of health in all settings, tackling the needs of children living in adverse conditions, and getting governments to recognize that optimizing child health is a fundamental human right are central to the mission and future of the Sustainable Development Goals.
[Citations available at title link above]

Islamic Development Bank and UNICEF to establish a Global Muslim Philanthropy Fund for Children

Philanthropy – “Global Muslim Philanthropy Fund for Children”

Islamic Development Bank and UNICEF to establish a Global Muslim Philanthropy Fund for Children
MARRAKECH, 3 April 2019 – The Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) and UNICEF today signed a communique to announce their intent to develop a Global Muslim Philanthropy Fund for Children.

Discussed on the margins of IsDB’s 44th Annual Meeting of Board of Governors, the fund would aim to mobilise Islamic giving, including philanthropic and Zakat resources, towards humanitarian and resilience development programmes that ensure the well-being of children in IsDB member countries.

IsDB and UNICEF are now developing the fund, alongside key partners and potential supporters, in anticipation of a formal launch during the United Nations General Assembly in September 2019 in New York.

IsDB and UNICEF have collaborated since 1976. The two organizations signed a formal Memorandum of Understanding in 1989. This was followed in 2017 by a Strategic Partnership Framework Agreement related to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

“Leveraging our respective strengths has always been at the heart of our partnership with UNICEF. Now we are set to take our collaboration to new heights through an innovative and timely mechanism that sits at the nexus of Islamic finance and global humanitarian and resilience efforts,” said IsDB President Dr Bandar Hajjar.

“Global humanitarian needs are at critical levels and children are especially vulnerable – they face the highest risk of violence, exploitation, disease and neglect. Establishing a Muslim Philanthropy Fund with IsDB will enable us to provide many more of these children with access to safe water, nutrition, education, health and protection,” UNICEF Deputy Executive Director Charlotte Petri Gornitzka…

New Report Shows Chinese Philanthropy Sector Has Quadrupled to USD 23.4 Billion Since 2009

Philanthropy – China

New Report Shows Chinese Philanthropy Sector Has Quadrupled to USD 23.4 Billion Since 2009
Landmark study unpacks key trends in Chinese philanthropy, identifies unique strengths and untapped opportunities for strategic engagement with international organisations
5 April 2019, New York – Total giving in China has grown to a remarkable USD 23.4 billion in 2017, with registered foundations increasing by 17% over the last decade and corporate giving dominating philanthropic efforts by contributing more than 65% of total giving in 2016. These indicators reflect the sector’s growth into a powerhouse for development. Published by AVPN and supported by The Rockefeller Foundation, Philanthropy in China is a first-of-its-kind report that looks beyond indices and rich-lists, and details the unique evolution and characteristics of Chinese giving, highlighting key trends, opportunities, and challenges that philanthropists – both Chinese and international – can leverage to maximize their impact.

“With the new regulatory environment and rapid growth of philanthropic capital in China, we see a need to marshal resources more effectively towards the delivery of scalable, high-impact solutions,” says Naina Subberwal Batra, Chairperson and CEO at AVPN, which authored the report. “The Philanthropy in China report not only seeks to carve new pathways for philanthropists to adopt more sophisticated social investing practices in China but also enhance our collective ability to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals.”

Primed for Innovation
The report finds that while Chinese philanthropy is relatively nascent, the sector quadrupled between 2009 and 2017 – pumping USD 23.4 billion into social causes in 2017 – and is highly innovative. Traditionally focused on education, poverty alleviation, and healthcare, giving in China has shown growing interest in under-funded areas, such as youth development and environmental protection. Foundations are also looking at more financially sustainable models that can deliver impact at scale. Some foundations – such as Narada Foundation and Yifang Foundations – are experimenting with new social investment tools while there have been more social enterprises that are incorporating positive social impact in their business models.

According to the report, Chinese philanthropists are also ahead of the curve in leveraging cutting-edge technology and the country’s thriving digital services sector to spark greater public interest in charity to solve global development challenges. These innovative approaches have the potential to enhance transparency and accountability, thereby building trust and productivity within the philanthropic sector…

1 in 4 health care facilities lacks basic water services – UNICEF, WHO

Health

1 in 4 health care facilities lacks basic water services – UNICEF, WHO
WHO-UNICEF Press release
GENEVA/NEW YORK 03 April 2019
One in four health care facilities around the world lacks basic water services, impacting over 2 billion people, according to a new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP).

The WHO/UNICEF JMP report, WASH in Health Care Facilities, is the first comprehensive global assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in health care facilities. It also finds that 1 in 5 health care facilities has no sanitation service*, impacting 1.5 billion people. The report further reveals that many health centres lack basic facilities for hand hygiene and safe segregation and disposal of health care waste.

These services are crucial to preventing infections, reducing the spread of antimicrobial resistance and providing quality care, particularly for safe childbirth.

“Water, sanitation and hygiene services in health facilities are the most basic requirements of infection prevention and control, and of quality care. They are fundamental to respecting the dignity and human rights of every person who seeks health care and of health workers themselves,” said António Guterres, United Nations Secretary-General. “I call on people everywhere to support action for WASH in all health care facilities. This is essential to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.”

The WHO/UNICEF JMP report found that just half – 55 per cent – of health care facilities in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) had basic water services. It is estimated that 1 in 5 births globally takes place in LDCs, and that, each year, 17 million women in these countries give birth in health centres with inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene.

“When a baby is born in a health facility without adequate water, sanitation and hygiene, the risk of infection and death for both the mother and the baby is high,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore. “Every birth should be supported by a safe pair of hands, washed with soap and water, using sterile equipment, in a clean environment.”

In an accompanying report, Water, sanitation, and hygiene in health care facilities: Practical steps to achieve universal access for quality care, WHO and UNICEF researchers note that more than 1 million deaths each year are associated with unclean births. Infections account for 26% of neonatal deaths and 11% of maternal mortality…

Both reports can be downloaded from www.washdata.org.

Court Rules in FTC’s Favor Against Predatory Academic Publisher OMICS Group; Imposes $50.1 Million Judgment against Defendants That Made False Claims and Hid Publishing Fees

Science Journal Publishing :: Integrity

Court Rules in FTC’s Favor Against Predatory Academic Publisher OMICS Group; Imposes $50.1 Million Judgment against Defendants That Made False Claims and Hid Publishing Fees
For Release April 3, 2019
A federal judge has ordered journal publisher and conference organizer Srinubabu Gedela and his companies to pay more than $50.1 million to resolve Federal Trade Commission charges that they made deceptive claims to academics and researchers about the nature of their conferences and publications, and hid steep publication fees.

“These publishing companies lied about their academic journals and took millions of dollars from aspiring researchers and writers,” said Andrew Smith, Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “We’re pleased with the court’s strong order holding these companies and its owner responsible for the damage they caused.”

In its 2016 complaint, the FTC alleged that OMICS Group Inc., iMedPub LLC, Conference Series LLC, and the owner of these companies, Gedela, advertised hundreds of online academic journals and international conferences for scientists and medical professionals, and deceptively claimed that their journals provided authors with rigorous peer review and had editorial boards made up of prominent academics. In reality, many articles were published with little to no peer review, and many individuals represented to be editors had not agreed to be affiliated with the journals.

The FTC further alleged that the defendants represented that their journals had been accepted by prominent academic indexing services such as the National Institute of Health’s “PubMed Central.” In fact, NIH had refused to index the defendants’ journals and demanded that they cease representing that the defendants’ journals were associated with PubMed.

The FTC also alleged that the defendants failed to properly tell authors who submitted papers for consideration that the defendants would charge the authors significant publishing fees. The defendants also failed to allow authors to withdraw their articles from submission, making their research ineligible for publication in other journals.

Finally, the complaint alleged that, to promote their scientific conferences, the defendants deceptively used the names of prominent researchers as conference presenters, when in fact many of those researchers had not agreed to participate in the events.

In November 2017, a federal court granted a preliminary injunction requested by the FTC, temporarily halting the deceptive practices of these academic journal publishers.

In a recent summary judgment decision, the court found that the defendants violated the FTC Act by making deceptive claims regarding their academic journals and scientific conferences, and by failing to adequately disclose their publishing fees. The resulting final order prohibits the defendants from making misrepresentations regarding their academic journals and conferences, including that specific persons are editors of their journals or have agreed to participate in their conferences, that their journals engage in peer review, that their journals are included in any academic journal indexing service, or the extent to which their journals are cited. It also requires that the defendants clearly and conspicuously disclose all costs associated with submitting or publishing articles in their journals. The order also requires the defendants to obtain express written consent from any person the defendants represent to be associated with their academic journals or scientific conferences. The order enters a judgment against the defendants in the amount of $50.1 million.

The FTC would like to thank the U.S. National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health for its invaluable assistance in this case.

The U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada issued the summary judgment order on March 29, 2019.

Financing for Sustainable Development Report 2019

Sustainable Development

Financing for Sustainable Development Report 2019
United Nations – Report of the Inter-agency Task Force on Financing for Development
April 2019 :: 208 pages
PDF: https://developmentfinance.un.org/sites/developmentfinance.un.org/files/FSDR2019.pdf
Abstract
The 2019 Financing for Sustainable Development Report (FSDR) of the Inter-agency Task Force on Financing for Development warns that mobilizing sufficient financing remains a major challenge in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Despite signs of progress, investments that are critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) remain underfunded and parts of the multilateral system are under strain.

The FSDR recommends that the international community should use this opportunity to reshape both national and international financial systems in line with sustainable development. If we fail to do so, we will fail to deliver the 2030 Agenda.

The 2019 FSDR begins with the global macroeconomic context (chapter I). The thematic chapter (chapter II) presents four building blocks to operationalize implementation of the Addis Agenda at the country level though integrated national financing frameworks (INFFs). The remainder of the report (Chapters III.A to III.G and IV) discusses progress in the seven action areas of the Addis Agenda. Each chapter begins with a summary that highlights key messages and presents policy options. Each chapter gives updates on implementation, and lays out challenges and policy options on both the national and international levels.

The 2019 FSDR is the fourth report on implementing the Financing for Development outcomes and the means of implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. The assessment draws on the expertise, analysis and data from more than 60 agencies and international institutions that make up the Task Force, which is led by UN DESA and includes the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organisation, as well as UN agencies such as UNCTAD and UNDP.

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Press Release
Major New UN Report Calls for Overhaul of Global Financial System
Posted on April 5, 2019
NEW YORK – Sixty-plus international organizations, led by the United Nations and including the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group and World Trade Organization, jointly sounded the alarm Thursday in a new report, warning that unless national and international financial systems are revamped, the world’s governments will fail to keep their promises on such critical issues as combatting climate change and eradicating poverty by 2030.

In their 2019 Financing for Sustainable Development Report, the international organizations find some good news: investment has gained strength in some countries and interest in sustainable investing is growing, with 75 per cent of individual investors showing interest in how their investments affect the world.

And yet, greenhouse gas emissions grew 1.3 per cent in 2017; investment in many countries is falling; and 30 developing countries are now at high risk or already in debt distress. At the same time, global growth is expected to have peaked at around 3 per cent.

Changing the current trajectory in financing sustainable development is not just about raising additional investment, says the report. Achieving global goals depends on supportive financial systems, and conducive global and national policy environments.

Yet the report warns that creating favorable conditions is becoming more challenging. Rapid changes in technology, geopolitics, and climate are remaking our economies and societies, and existing national and multilateral institutions — which had helped lift billions out of poverty — are now struggling to adapt. Confidence in the multilateral system has been undermined, in part because it has failed to deliver returns equitably, with most people in the world living in countries with increasing inequality.

“Trust in the multilateral system itself is eroding, in part because we are not delivering inclusive and sustainable growth for all,” said António Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his foreword to the report. “Our shared challenge is to make the international trading and financial systems fit for purpose to advance sustainable development and promote fair globalization.”

The international agencies recommend concrete steps to overhaul the global institutional architecture and make the global economy and global finance more sustainable, including:
• supporting a shift towards long-term investment horizons with sustainability risks central to investment decisions;
• revisiting mechanisms for sovereign debt restructuring to respond to more complex debt instruments and a more diverse creditor landscape;
• revamping the multilateral trading system;
• addressing challenges to tax systems that inhibit countries from mobilizing adequate resources in an increasingly digitalized world economy; and
• addressing growing market concentration that extends across borders, with impacts on inequality.

At the national level, the report puts forward a roadmap for countries to revamp their public and private financial systems to mobilize resources for sustainable investment. It introduces tools for countries to align financing policies with national sustainable development strategies and priorities…

Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu- 2 April 2019

DRC – Ebola

35: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu
2 April 2019
[Excerpts]
Situation update
This past week saw a notable increase in the number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, with 72 newly confirmed cases and one new probable case reported in the last seven days; the largest proportion of which were from Katwa and Vuhovi health zones…

…Despite these setbacks, it should be noted that the recent shift in strategy of increasing community outreach from earlier weeks, is gradually yielding tangible results on the ground. In Katwa, the Ebola Treatment Centre was reopened after frank and open dialogue with the community. Previously reluctant communities are now permitting access to healthcare providers once again, with residents actively participating in the renewed response efforts at times. Incidents in the community are now also rigorously followed up to minimize any potential misunderstanding, which may inadvertently contribute to community reluctance, refusal, or resistance to response efforts. In the outbreak hotspots of Katwa, Butembo and Vuhovi, persistent efforts aimed at encouraging community dialogues saw the establishment of Ebola community committees across 16 health areas. Although these community engagement interventions take time to win over the trust and cooperation of the local population, they are an integral tool in aiding the acceptance of WHO response efforts to curtail the spread of EVD in these challenging social/geographic settings. Successes observed this past week are positive indicators that these measures should be maintained whilst continually adapting to the evolving context.

Implementation of ring vaccination protocol
There are 19 vaccination teams made up of 226 Congolese vaccinators with basic GCP training, 50 Congolese formally trained in GCP and 43 GCP trained and experienced Guinean/African researchers.

As of 31 March, 93 686 contacts and contacts of contacts have been vaccinated.

The 2016 SAGE guidelines recommend that all HCWS and FLWS at risk of Ebola in the affected areas and in the areas where the outbreak is likely to spread are offered rVSV ZEBOV GP vaccine.

Since the start of the outbreak, healthcare workers and front-line workers at risk of Ebola are also being offered preventive vaccination. Almost 27 000 have been vaccinated in the health areas affected by the outbreak. In addition, over 15 000 HCWs and FLWs have been vaccinated in neighbouring areas where the risk of spread is significant (i.e Goma, South Sudan, Uganda, and soon Rwanda and Burundi)…

Risk communication, social mobilization and community engagement
Community dialogues taking place in hotspots of Butembo, Katwa and Vuhovi health zones have led to the establishment of Ebola community committees in four health areas in Katwa, six health areas in Butembo, and six health areas in Vuhovi.

House to house visits and discussions in public forums, including in market places, schools and churches to raise awareness on the evolving Ebola outbreak and clarify related community concerns are ongoing in Beni, Bunia, Butembo, Katwa, Mabalako, Oicha, Lubero, and Goma.

A strategic meeting with key operational partners, including NGOs was held in Goma on 25-26 March with a clear objective for stronger collaboration and alignment of work at the health area level to strengthening risk communication and community engagement, informed by social science evidence. These include addressing community needs beyond the immediate Ebola response interventions.

Community related incidents are systematically being followed up to ensure that any misunderstanding leading to reluctance, refusal or resistance of the Ebola response is followed up and resolved as quickly as possible…

Emergencies

Emergencies

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 3 April 2019
:: The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) met on 2-4 April 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. Among other immunization topics, SAGE was provided an update on the latest global epidemiology on polio eradication efforts and an overview of the GPEI Endgame Strategy 2019-2023. In addition, SAGE endorsed the guidelines for surveillance of vaccine-derived polioviruses in persons with primary immunodeficiency diseases.
:: The Pakistan Regional Polio Laboratory is nearing completion with funding from Japan International Cooperation Agency. Read more here.
:: Read about the smart interactive visualization being used for disease surveillance and routine immunization assessments for polio eradication efforts in South Sudan.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan— one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case;
:: Pakistan –six WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria— two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2)-positive environmental isolates.

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Around 9.3 million children to be vaccinated in first round of polio campaign in 2019
[WHO EMRO website]

Kabul, 1 April, 2019 – The first round of polio national immunization days began on 1 April 2019 in Afghanistan. The 5-day campaign will target over 9.3 million children under-5 years of age in all of Afghanistan’s provinces, except Bamiyan, Daikundi and Ghor provinces due to bad weather.

During the campaign about 8.4 million children aged between 6 months to 5 years will also be given vitamin A capsules.  Vitamin A helps to build a child’s immunity and reduces the risk of diarrhoea, respiratory infections and measles.

The most recent case of polio was reported from the Shahid-e-Hassas district of Uruzgan province, which permanently paralysed a 26-month-old male child. This is third case in Afghanistan in 2019; 2 other cases were reported from Kandahar province.

Dr Feroz emphasized the importance of the campaign and called on all people to work together to eradicate polio. “This is the first national campaign this year and we couldn’t stress this enough, but please open your doors when the vaccinators come knocking, bring out your children, protect them against this incurable disease.”

Dr Peeperkorn highlighted the effort to eradicate polio globally, calling on all partners to “keep the eyes on the prize, as humanity is on the verge of one of the greatest public health achievement in history – eradicating polio. Afghanistan can end polio for the world, so let us work together, keep our neutrality, work with all layers of society and achieve our goal together.”

Polio is incurable and can paralyse children for life. The only way to prevent polio is to vaccinate all children with 2 drops of polio vaccine, every time it is offered, until they are 5 years of age. Children are protected more with every additional dose of oral polio vaccine. Repeated vaccines help to build strong immunity of the child and the whole community.

In addition to highlighting the importance of eradicating polio, all parties reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen routine immunization, stressing that expanding access to immunization is vital for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, poverty reduction and universal health coverage.

The polio vaccine is safe and effective and has no side-effects. It has been strongly endorsed by prominent local and international Islamic scholars. It is critical to vaccinate all children under 5 across the country to stop the virus, including all sick children and newborns, whose immunity is weak against this disease.

[Editor’s Note: We recognize serious inaccuracies about OPV in this WHO EMRO announcement].

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Cyclone Idai
:: Cholera vaccination campaign begins in Mozambique 3 April 2019

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Youth speaking to youth about dodging bullets and Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo  April 2019
:: 35: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  2 April 2019
:: DONs – Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   4 April 2019

Syrian Arab Republic
::  Al-Hol Camp, Al-Hasakeh Governorate health situation report  1 April 2019

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar  – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen  – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Iraq
:: Vaccination campaign against measles, mumps and rubella concludes in Iraq 1 April 2019

occupied Palestinian territory 
:: ·  Mobile clinic brings mammography services to remote communities in the West Bank
April 2019

Libya
:: Workshop reviews community health workers’ training modules for adaption for Libya
3 April 2019

Zimbabwe
:: Zimbabwe Launches Mental Health Strategy   1 April 2019

Brazil (in Portugese) – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Afghanistan
:: Around 9.3 million children to be vaccinated in first round of polio campaign in 2019
1 April 2019

Chad  – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018  – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya   – No new digest announcements identified
Lao People’s Democratic Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Mali  – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis  – No new digest announcements identified
Peru  – No new digest announcements identified
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut  – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania  – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO AFRO – Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin
Week 13: 25 – 31 March 2019
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 65 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
:: Response to the tropical cyclone in southern Africa
:: Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Meningitis outbreak in Togo
:: Lassa fever outbreak in Liberia.

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic   
:: Humanitarian Update Syrian Arab Republic – Issue 02 | 4 April 2019

FIGURES
People in need of humanitarian assistance 13M
People in acute need of humanitarian assistance 5.2M
Internally displaced people (as of August) 6.2M
Returnees (January – December 2018) 1.4 M
People in need in UN-declared hardto-reach areas 1.1M

Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia 
:: Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue #6 | 18 – 31 March 2019

Somalia 
:: Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin, 1 March – 3 April 2019