The Lancet – Series: HIV and related infections in prisoners

The Lancet
Sep 10, 2016 Volume 388 Number 10049 p1025-1128 e2-e3

HIV and related infections in prisoners
Global burden of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis in prisoners and detainees
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer, Fredrick L Altice

HIV and related infections in prisoners
Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, Frederick L Altice

HIV and related infections in prisoners
Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners
Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Stewart E Reid, Amee Schwitters, Lucas Wiessing, Nabila El-Bassel, Kate Dolan, Babak Moazen, Andrea L Wirtz, Annette Verster, Frederick L Altice

New England Journal of Medicine – September 8, 2016

New England Journal of Medicine
September 8, 2016 Vol. 375 No. 10

Need for a New Lyme Disease Vaccine
S.A. Plotkin
Despite the development of two vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, there is no such vaccine currently on the market. But the problem of Lyme disease is large and growing. Fortunately, the future seems reasonably bright for new vaccines.

Review Article
The Changing Face of Clinical Trials: The Primary Outcome Is Positive — Is That Good Enough?
S.J. Pocock and G.W. Stone
There is a natural tendency to simplify the findings of a clinical trial into a binary conclusion: “Was there a positive outcome — or not?” In order to address this question with some objectivity, attention is typically focused on whether the prespecified measure of success for the primary outcome has been met — that is, whether a P value of less than 0.05 has been achieved for the difference in treatments. In reality, a more nuanced interpretation requires a thorough examination of the totality of the evidence, including secondary end points, safety issues, and the size and quality of the trial. In this article, which focuses on the evaluation of “positive” studies — as in our previous article,1 which focused on the appraisal of “negative” studies — our intent is to facilitate a more sophisticated and balanced interpretation of trial evidence. Again, we make our points using examples from trials involving cardiovascular disease (our area of expertise), but the messages can be easily applied to other subject areas.

Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia

PLoS Currents: Outbreaks
(Accessed 10 September 2016)

Isolation of Zika Virus Imported from Tonga into Australia
September 7, 2016 · Research Article
Introduction: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016.
Methods: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples. Conventional cell culture techniques and suckling mice were employed in an attempt to isolate ZIKV from serum and urine.
Results: A ZIKV isolate (TS17-2016) was recovered from the serum sample after one passage in suckling mouse brains and harvested 11 days post inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis of complete envelope (E) gene sequences demonstrated TS17-2016 shared 99.9% nucleotide identity with other contemporary sequences from Tonga 2016, Brazil 2015 and French Polynesia 2013 within the Asian lineage.
Discussion: This is the first known report of successful isolation of ZIKV from a human clinical sample in Australia and the first from a traveler from Tonga. This study highlights the potential difficulties in isolating ZIKV from acute clinical samples using conventional cell culture techniques, particularly in non-endemic countries like Australia where access to samples of sufficient viral load is limited. The successful isolation of TS17-2016 will be essential for continued investigations of ZIKV transmission and pathogenicity and will enable the advancement of new preventative control measures extremely relevant to the Australian and Pacific region.

Sex Differences in Tuberculosis Burden and Notifications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

PLoS Medicine
(Accessed 10 September 2016)
Research Article
Sex Differences in Tuberculosis Burden and Notifications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Katherine C. Horton, Peter MacPherson, Rein M. G. J. Houben, Richard G. White, Elizabeth L. Corbett
| published 06 Sep 2016 PLOS Medicine

A Médecins Sans Frontières Ethics Framework for Humanitarian Innovation

PLoS Medicine
(Accessed 10 September 2016)

A Médecins Sans Frontières Ethics Framework for Humanitarian Innovation
Julian Sheather, Kiran Jobanputra, Doris Schopper, John Pringle, Sarah Venis, Sidney Wong, Robin Vincent-Smith
Health in Action | published 06 Sep 2016 PLOS Medicine
Summary Points
:: Humanitarian organisations often have to innovate to deliver health care and aid to populations in complex and volatile contexts.
:: Innovation projects can involve ethical risks and have consequences for populations even if human participants are not directly involved. While high-level principles have been developed for humanitarian innovation, there is a lack of guidance for how these should be applied in practice.
: Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) has well-established research ethics frameworks, but application of such frameworks to innovation projects could stifle innovation by introducing regulation disproportionate to the risks involved. In addition, the dynamic processes of innovation do not fit within conventional ethics frameworks.
:: MSF developed and is piloting an ethics framework for humanitarian innovation that is intended for self-guided use by innovators or project owners to enable them to identify and weigh the harms and benefits of such work and be attentive towards a plurality of ethical considerations.

Challenges of Estimating the Annual Caseload of Severe Acute Malnutrition: The Case of Niger

PLoS One
[Accessed 10 September 2016]
Research Article
Challenges of Estimating the Annual Caseload of Severe Acute Malnutrition: The Case of Niger
Hedwig Deconinck, Anaïs Pesonen, Mahaman Hallarou, Jean-Christophe Gérard, André Briend, Philippe Donnen, Jean Macq
Research Article | published 08 Sep 2016 PLOS ONE

Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
(Accessed 10 September 2016)
Men’s status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy
Christopher R. von Ruedena,1 and Adrian V. Jaeggib
Author Affiliations
Edited by Kristen Hawkes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, and approved July 19, 2016 (received for review April 28, 2016)
Much of human behavior results from a desire for social status. From an evolutionary perspective, answering the question of why we pursue status must consider how status affects reproduction, especially in nonindustrial societies with natural fertility. In a metaanalysis of 288 results from 33 nonindustrial populations, we find that status is significantly associated with men’s reproductive success, consistent with an evolved basis for status pursuit. Status hierarchies have changed dramatically throughout human history, yet we find that the association between status and reproductive success does not depend on subsistence category (foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture) or how status is measured. These findings suggest no significant increase in selection on status-enhancing traits with the domestication of plants and animals.

Social status motivates much of human behavior. However, status may have been a relatively weak target of selection for much of human evolution if ancestral foragers tended to be more egalitarian. We test the “egalitarianism hypothesis” that status has a significantly smaller effect on reproductive success (RS) in foragers compared with nonforagers. We also test between alternative male reproductive strategies, in particular whether reproductive benefits of status are due to lower offspring mortality (parental investment) or increased fertility (mating effort). We performed a phylogenetic multilevel metaanalysis of 288 statistical associations between measures of male status (physical formidability, hunting ability, material wealth, political influence) and RS (mating success, wife quality, fertility, offspring mortality, and number of surviving offspring) from 46 studies in 33 nonindustrial societies. We found a significant overall effect of status on RS (r = 0.19), though this effect was significantly lower than for nonhuman primates (r = 0.80). There was substantial variation due to marriage system and measure of RS, in particular status associated with offspring mortality only in polygynous societies (r = −0.08), and with wife quality only in monogamous societies (r = 0.15). However, the effects of status on RS did not differ significantly by status measure or subsistence type: foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture. These results suggest that traits that facilitate status acquisition were not subject to substantially greater selection with domestication of plants and animals, and are part of reproductive strategies that enhance fertility more than offspring well-being.

Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
(Accessed 10 September 2016)

Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice
Charles F. Manskia,1 and Aleksey Tetenovb,c
Author Affiliations
Contributed by Charles F. Manski, July 23, 2016 (sent for review May 20, 2016; reviewed by Keisuke Hirano and David Meltzer)
A core objective of trials comparing alternative medical treatments is to inform treatment choice in clinical practice, and yet conventional practice in designing trials has been to choose a sample size that yields specified statistical power. Power, a concept in the theory of hypothesis testing, is at most loosely connected to effective treatment choice. This paper develops an alternative principle for trial design that aims to directly benefit medical decision making. We propose choosing a sample size that enables implementation of near-optimal treatment rules. Near optimality means that treatment choices are suitably close to the best that could be achieved if clinicians were to know with certainty mean treatment response in their patient populations.

Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on treatment response, but there is rarely consensus on what the subjective prior beliefs should be. We use Wald’s frequentist statistical decision theory to study design of trials under ambiguity. We show that ε-optimal rules exist when trials have large enough sample size. An ε-optimal rule has expected welfare within ε of the welfare of the best treatment in every state of nature. Equivalently, it has maximum regret no larger than ε. We consider trials that draw predetermined numbers of subjects at random within groups stratified by covariates and treatments. We report exact results for the special case of two treatments and binary outcomes. We give simple sufficient conditions on sample sizes that ensure existence of ε-optimal treatment rules when there are multiple treatments and outcomes are bounded. These conditions are obtained by application of Hoeffding large deviations inequalities to evaluate the performance of empirical success rules.

Maternal morbidity associated with violence and maltreatment from husbands and in-laws: findings from Indian slum communities

Reproductive Health
[Accessed 10 September 2016]

Maternal morbidity associated with violence and maltreatment from husbands and in-laws: findings from Indian slum communities
Jay G. Silverman, Donta Balaiah, Julie Ritter, Anindita Dasgupta, Sabrina C. Boyce, Michele R. Decker, D. D. Naik, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti and Anita Raj
Published on: 8 September 2016

Science – 09 September 2016

09 September 2016 Vol 353, Issue 6304

Ebola and Zika: Cautionary tales
By Michael T. Osterholm
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1073
The emergence of Zika in the Americas is a stark reminder of how quickly public health challenges of infectious diseases can change. The need for a safe and effective vaccine is immediate. Yet, like the Ebola epidemic 2 years ago, we find ourselves without a vaccine to combat this latest threat. When surveillance points to a possible emergence of a new infectious disease of potential public health importance, we need procedural and funding mechanisms that can quickly identify candidate vaccines and drive research and development toward licensure and production. Even if such a vaccine is not yet licensed, having it ready for immediate large trials when a regional crisis occurs will be a major advantage over our current reactive system.

Zika vaccine trials
By Marc Lipsitch, Benjamin J. Cowling
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1094-1095 Full Access
There are new and familiar challenges in the race for timely and effective vaccines
Promising data for candidate vaccines against Zika virus infection reported by Abbink et al. (1) on page 1129 of this issue raise hopes that one or more Zika virus vaccines may soon be ready for efficacy trials. Recent years have seen a barrage of emerging infectious diseases, including those caused by new pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and those that are newly salient because of increased geographic spread, higher incidence, or genetic change, such as influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. Developing effective vaccines is a central goal for such pathogens.

Research Articles
Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys
By Peter Abbink, Rafael A. Larocca, Rafael A. De La Barrera, Christine A. Bricault, Edward T. Moseley, Michael Boyd, Marinela Kirilova, Zhenfeng Li, David Ng’ang’a, Ovini Nanayakkara, Ramya Nityanandam, Noe B. Mercado, Erica N. Borducchi, Arshi Agarwal, Amanda L. Brinkman, Crystal Cabral, Abishek Chandrashekar, Patricia B. Giglio, David Jetton, Jessica Jimenez, Benjamin C. Lee, Shanell Mojta, Katherine Molloy, Mayuri Shetty, George H. Neubauer, Kathryn E. Stephenson, Jean Pierre S. Peron, Paolo M. de A. Zanotto, Johnathan Misamore, Brad Finneyfrock, Mark G. Lewis, Galit Alter, Kayvon Modjarrad, Richard G. Jarman, Kenneth H. Eckels, Nelson L. Michael, Stephen J. Thomas, Dan H. Barouch
Science09 Sep 2016 : 1129-1132
Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans.

Concepts and practices for the democratisation of knowledge generation in research partnerships for sustainable development

Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice
Volume 12, Number 3, August 2016, pp. 405-430(26)
Concepts and practices for the democratisation of knowledge generation in research partnerships for sustainable development
Ott, Cordula1; Kiteme, Boniface2
In response to the development and climate crisis of the Anthropocene, world leaders at the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Summit in New York have reconfirmed the urgency of a sustainability transformation. This paper shows how a strong conceptualisation of sustainability can guide scientists in contributing to this transformation. The Eastern and Southern Africa Partnership Programme (1999–2015) offers experiences in framing and implementing research as a transdisciplinary future-forming process. Its procedural, reflexive programme design proved adequate to support the democratisation of knowledge generation. This fostered evidence-based contextualised knowledge and corresponding institutions, and strengthened the future-forming capacity of all partners involved.

Being Untaught: How NGO Field Workers Empower Parents of Children with Disabilities in Dadaab

Global Education Review
3(3), 2016
Being Untaught: How NGO Field Workers Empower Parents of Children with Disabilities in Dadaab
A Krupar
Roughly 350,000 refugees, over 90% of them Somali, lived in five sprawling camps in Dadaab, Kenya in 2015. In the Dadaab refugee camps, families had unique experiences of disability, education, women’s roles, and involvement with International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO) programming. INGOs provided a variety of basic services including education such as the program analyzed here for parents of children with disabilities. Many children with disabilities in the refugee camps faced social stigma and lacked access to education. This research draws on practices and literature in family literacy and parental involvement programming to explore how one NGO training sought to empower women learners to send their children with disabilities to school in Kambioos, the smallest and newest refugee camp in Dadaab. Using ethnographic methods, one training program involving parents and children was video-taped. The video was used as a cue to interview field workers about how the training empowered parents, particularly mothers. The study found that empowerment of women through training for parents of children with disabilities centered on parents’ interaction with formal schools and engagement in their communities.

Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
September 2016 vol. 44 no. 3 371-380
Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?
M Goodwin
This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term “bioethics” provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

Virtual museums: international strategies and digital innovation management in global competition-an overview

International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business
Volume 8, Issue 2
Virtual museums: international strategies and digital innovation management in global competition-an overview
Paolo Esposito, Paolo Ricci
During the early 90s and in the last 30 years, researchers, scholars and professionals focussed their attention on management practices, tools and models referring to arts and cultural heritage organisations (Peacock et al., 1982; Esposito, 2013; Esposito and Ricci, 2015) as well as on the development of new and different organisational forms under pressure from the New Public Management. These studies aimed at analysing, developing and proposing different conceptual and management frameworks within a context characterised by increasing scarcity of financial resources in addition to regulatory complexity. The work aims to achieve the research objectives through an inductive/deductive research method. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the growing phenomenon represented by the ‘Cultural Heritage Management’ of archaeological sites, observing and discussing international strategies and innovation management of virtual museums in global competition, supporting users and different generations of users ‘accessibility’ to services and cultural products.

Engaging youth in post-disaster research: Lessons learned from a creative methods approach

Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement
Vol 9, No 1 (2016)
Engaging youth in post-disaster research: Lessons learned from a creative methods approach
Lori Peek, Jennifer Tobin-Gurley, Robin S Cox, Leila Scannell, Sarah Fletcher, Cheryl Heykoop
Children and youth often demonstrate resilience and capacity in the face of disasters. Yet, they are typically not given the opportunities to engage in youth-driven research and lack access to official channels through which to contribute their perspectives to policy and practice during the recovery process. To begin to fill this void in research and action, this multi-site research project engaged youth from disaster-affected communities in Canada and the United States. This article presents a flexible youth-centric workshop methodology that uses participatory and arts-based methods to elicit and explore youth’s disaster and recovery experiences. The opportunities and challenges associated with initiating and maintaining partnerships, reciprocity and youth-adult power differentials using arts-based methods, and sustaining engagement in post-disaster settings, are discussed. Ultimately, this work contributes to further understanding of the methods being used to conduct research for, with, and about youth.

Mental health in and psychosocial support for humanitarian field workers. A literature review

University of Oslo – Master thesis
Mental health in and psychosocial support for humanitarian field workers. A literature review
S Nordahl [May not be currently available]
Objective: To describe the current research literature on mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) concerning humanitarian field workers. Method: Using a scoping review method, a search was conducted in eight electronic bibliographic databases, yielding 5185 references. Grey literature was identified by snowballing relevant websites and hand searching key journals, adding another two records. Ancestry search of key references added twelve. After removing duplicates and screening by selection criteria, a final 73 records were selected for the review. Results: The knowledge base is modest, but has seen rapid growth over the last decade. Cross-sectional retrospective designs are overrepresented. Most study humanitarian workers, only a few investigate organizations. The majority is interested in stressors, risk factors and adverse health, and fewer studies look for health benefits. Western expatriate staff are overrepresented, as are workers with professional health backgrounds. Humanitarians experience elevated rates of exposure to traumatic and chronic stressors, and seeming consequences are post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression and burnout. Key risk factors are young age, inexperience, lack of training and a spectrum of organizational factors. Protective factors are training and social support systems. Humanitarians also experience notable work related wellbeing, benefits and growth. Ethical distress, moral dilemmas and inner conflict is a major theme arising from qualitative studies. Conclusions: Main findings adhere with the psycho-trauma literature at large, and with findings on related professions. The humanitarian work experience is characterized by complex distress and growth, which warrants further studies. There is particular need for more research on organizations as such, leadership, national staff, staff with non-health professional backgrounds, as well as the distinct and complicated ethical experiences of humanitarian workers.

Rethinking the Assumptions of Refugee Policy: Beyond Individualism to the Challenge of Inclusive Communities

Journal on Migration and Human Security
Volume 4 Number 3 (2016): 76-82
Rethinking the Assumptions of Refugee Policy: Beyond Individualism to the Challenge of Inclusive Communities
George Rupp
Executive Summary
The values of individualism developed in the post-Enlightenment West are at the core of the contemporary refugee protection system. While enormously powerful, this tradition assigns priority to the individual as distinguished from the community. Based on patterns established in centuries of religious thought and practice as well as on the insights of key thinkers in the tradition of Western individualism, this paper argues that consideration of communities should receive greater emphasis. In terms of the refugee protection system, this shift requires examining how best to address the needs of communities that are uprooted, as well as the needs of communities into which displaced persons are received, rather than only focusing on individuals who cross a border and seek refugee status.

Evaluating the success of a marine protected area: A systematic review approach

Journal of Environmental Management
Available online 3 September 2016
Research Article
Evaluating the success of a marine protected area: A systematic review approach
J Gallacher, N Simmonds, H Fellowes, N Brown, N Gill…
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), marine areas in which human activities are restricted, are implemented worldwide to protect the marine environment. However, with a large proportion of these MPAs being no more than paper parks, it is important to be able to evaluate MPA success, determined by improvements to biophysical, socio-economic and governance conditions. In this study a systematic literature review was conducted to determine the most frequently used indicators of MPA success. These were then applied to a case study to demonstrate how success can be evaluated. The fifteen most frequently used indicators included species abundance, level of stakeholder participation and the existence of a decision-making and management body. Using the indicator framework with a traffic light system, we demonstrate how an MPA can be evaluated in terms of how well it performs against the indicators using secondary data from the literature. The framework can be used flexibly. For example, where no MPA data currently exist, the framework can be populated by qualitative data provided by local stakeholder knowledge. This system provides a cost-effective and straightforward method for managers and decision-makers to determine the level of success of any MPA and identify areas of weakness. However, given the variety of motivations for MPA establishment, this success needs to be determined in the context of the original management objectives of the MPA with greater weighting being placed on those objectives where appropriate.