Countering the Zika epidemic in Latin America

22 July 2016 Vol 353, Issue 6297

Policy Forum
Countering the Zika epidemic in Latin America
By Neil M. Ferguson, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Ilaria Dorigatti, Gemma L. Nedjati-Gilani, Christl A. Donnelly, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Pierre Nouvellet, Justin Lessler
Science22 Jul 2016 : 353-354
Epidemic dynamics are key and data gaps must be addressed
As evidence grew for a causal link between Zika infection and microcephaly and other serious congenital anomalies (1), the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Latin American Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 (2). The speed of spread [see the figure, top, and the supplementary materials (SM)] has made effective public health responses challenging. Immediate responses have included vector control (3) and advice to delay pregnancy in a few countries (4), followed by an extended recommendation to all affected countries by WHO in June 2016. These have merits but are likely to have limited effectiveness (5) and may interact antagonistically. Fuller understanding of dynamics and drivers of the epidemic is needed to assess longer-term risks to prioritize interventions.

Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals

Social Science & Medicine
Volume 159, Pages 1-180 (June 2016)

Review articles
Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals
Original Research Article
Pages 22-29
Amy Barnes, Garrett W. Brown, Sophie Harman
Partnership is a key idea in current debates about global health and development assistance, yet little is known about what partnership means to those who are responsible for operationalising it or how it is experienced in practice. This is particularly the case in the context of African health systems. This paper explores how health professionals working in global health hubs and the health systems of South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia understand and experience partnership. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 101 professionals based in each country, Washington DC and Geneva between October 2012 and June 2013, the paper makes four key arguments. First, partnership has a legitimating function in global health policy processes for international development institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations alike. Second, the practice of partnership generates idiosyncratic and complicated relationships that health professionals have to manage and navigate, often informally. Third, partnership is shaped by historical legacies, critical events, and independent consultants. Fourth, despite being an accepted part of global health policy, there is little shared understanding of what good partnership is meant to include or resemble in practice. Knowing more about the specific socio-cultural and political dynamics of partnership in different health system contexts is critical to equip health professionals with the skills to build the informal relations that are essential to effective partnership engagement.

Beating the odds: Successful establishment of a Phase II/III clinical research trial in resource-poor Liberia during the largest-ever Ebola outbreak

Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Available online 24 June 2016
Beating the odds: Successful establishment of a Phase II/III clinical research trial in resource-poor Liberia during the largest-ever Ebola outbreak
In Press, Accepted Manuscript – Open Access
J. Doe-Andersona, B. Baselera, P. Driscollb, M. Johnsonc, J. Lysanderc, L. McNayd, W.S. Njoha, M. Smolskisd, L. Wehrlene, J. Zuckermand, for the PREVAIL I Study Group
It has been argued that a country such as Liberia, not fully recovered from the devastation of decades of civil unrest, lacked the appropriate ethical and regulatory framework, basic human and health care services, and infrastructure to carry out clinical trials according to international standards of quality during a public health emergency. However, as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea were being ravaged by the largest and most devastating Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak ever recorded, the topic of conducting clinical trials of experimental vaccine and treatment candidates in these resource-poor countries generated the keen interest and concern of scientists, researchers, physicians, bioethicists, philanthropists, and even politicians. Decisive action on behalf of the Liberian government, and a timely positive and supportive response from the United States (U.S.) government, led to the formation of PREVAIL (Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia) – a clinical research partnership between the two governments. Within a span of 12 weeks, this partnership accomplished the unimaginable: the successful initiation of a Phase II/III vaccine clinical trial for EVD in Liberia. This paper will discuss the dynamics of the research collaboration, barriers encountered, breakthroughs realized, key elements of success, and lessons learned in the process.

African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management: Theory and Practice

African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management: Theory and Practice
Susan Osireditse Keitumetse
[Book] Springer International Publishing
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32017-5_1
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-32015-1
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-32017-5
This book seeks to place African cultural heritage studies and conservation practices in the modern context by bringing out modern topics around its use in the contemporary world. Cultural heritage resources in Africa and the developing world are facing a challenge of being roped into multiple platforms in a reactive and/or haphazard manner that does not account for their sustainable use. General resources conservation has been taking place in multiple facets for time immemorial. Cultural heritage resources management field, however, is new in Africa and among African stakeholders. Cultural heritage resources management is a process of organising the use of cultural resources amongst multiple stakeholders such as people, institutions, governments, regions and the world. To organise cultural resources conservation ideas, a conceptual framework (theory) built from observed stakeholders’ relationship with the resources (practice) through time, is needed. This chapter introduces the book’s consolidated and coordinated point of departure into theory and practice for African cultural heritage management. It also introduces an underlying make-up of contents in the book on African cultural heritage conservation and management. The book features a variety of topics through its chapters, amongst them international conventions as frameworks for African cultural heritage management, politics of the past, the building of sustainable communities using cultural heritage, sustainable interpretation of heritage , standard setting (certification) and heritage, heritage tourism and development mainstreaming of cultural heritage in Africa.

Constructive conservation – a model for developing heritage assets

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development
ISSN: 2044-1266
Volume 6 Issue 1

Conceptual Paper
Constructive conservation – a model for developing heritage assets
Sarah Hill (Independent Consultant, Toronto, Canada AND Lord Cultural Resources, Toronto, Canada)
– The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual model for adaptive reuse of heritage assets which has been produced in an effort to fill a gap in information, address the complexity of developing heritage assets and encourage more responsible and responsive treatment of heritage assets. The purpose of the model is to visually articulate the various elements that must be considered to successfully develop a heritage asset.
– Based on six years of observation and industry practice, the model reflects a previously undocumented process for developing and adapting built heritage assets employed by many professionals across the UK. The model is further strengthened by drawing from other international theories, concepts, and principles.
– The redevelopment of heritage assets is a “wicked problem”. The model established visually articulates current good practice in the field and provides a simplified version of the process.
– Presently, there is insufficient contemporary literature which adequately describes or visualizes the complex adaptive reuse of built heritage in a coherent and holistic way. This model is the first to try to visually capture and communicate current good practice for widespread use. It is hoped that the documentation and dissemination of this process will help to advance creative problem solving, increase the appeal of developing heritage assets and elevate the quality of work produced.

Data hubris? Humanitarian information systems and the mirage of technology

Third World Quarterly
Volume 37, Issue 8, 2016

Original Articles
Data hubris? Humanitarian information systems and the mirage of technology
Róisín Read, Bertrand Taithe and Roger Mac Ginty
Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute, University of Manchester, UK
Free access DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2015.1136208
This article looks at the promise of technology to revolutionise humanitarian action, especially in terms of the gathering and use of data. With many heralding a ‘data revolution’, the opportunities and enthusiasm for using social media and SMS data in crisis response are on the rise. The article constructs an analytical framework in order to scrutinise the three main claims made on behalf of technologically advanced humanitarian information systems: that they can access data more accurately, more quickly, and alter power relations in emancipatory ways. It does so in relation to two aspects of digital humanitarianism: visual technology and crisis mapping, and big data. The article is partly informed by a historical perspective, but also by interview and other material that suggests some of the claims made on behalf of technology are exaggerated. In particular, we argue that the enthusiasm for the data is vastly outstripped by the capacity to meaningfully analyse it. We conclude by scoping the implications of the future technological evolution of humanitarianism, in particular by examining how technology contributes to what Duffield terms ‘post-modern humanitarianism’.

Negotiating Knowledge – Evidence and experience in development NGOs

Negotiating Knowledge – Evidence and experience in development NGOs
Monograph – Published: July 2016 Pages: 180
Editors Rachel Hayman, Sophie King, Tiina Kontinen and Lata Narayanaswamy
eISBN: 978-1-78044-925-8 | ISBN: 978-1-85339-926-8
International NGOs are increasingly under pressure from governments and the public to demonstrate evidence of impact and positive results. This book critically examines how development NGOs working around the world create knowledge and evidence, and use it to satisfy donors, to improve their practices, and to further our understanding of poverty. It asks questions such as: does the evidence of community organizations count as much as higher-level organizations? Should southern NGOs be expected to disseminate pre-formed development ‘messages’? What do we mean by ‘evidence-based advocacy’?

The eight studies that form the core of Negotiating Knowledge span scholarly and practitioner research across Africa, Asia and Latin America. They tackle political issues that determine what forms of evidence and knowledge are given credence. They explore the power dynamics that shape the value placed on knowledge and learning in relationships within and between organizations.
Negotiating Knowledge urges NGOs to examine how they use knowledge in order to make it work better for themselves and for the people that they aim to assist. To do this well, they have to understand better what they mean by knowledge and evidence, revisit the value that they place on learning and knowledge, and invest in appropriate capacity and skills.

This book is essential reading for international NGO staff, policy makers, as well as those researching, studying and making policy in international development.

Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee and host community children in Lebanon

Journal of International Humanitarian Action
December 2016, 1:10

Research Article
Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee and host community children in Lebanon
Open Access First Online: 16 July 2016
Emily Lyles, Baptiste Hanquart, the LHAS Study Team, Michael Woodman, Shannon Doocy
DOI: 10.1186/s41018-016-0010-z
With over 500,000 Syrian refugee children in Lebanon, we undertook this study to assess unmet child health needs and health service utilization among Syrian refugees and affected host communities in Lebanon with the aim of informing humanitarian programming.
A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children.
The care seeking rate was 74.2 % among refugee and 89.0 % among host community households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Refugee households most often sought care in primary health care centers (52.7 %), followed by pharmacies (22.2 %) and private clinics (17.8 %), whereas host community households most often sought care in private clinics (47.6 %) and primary health care centers (23.2 %). Among child care seekers, 95.2 % of refugee and 94.6 % of host community children were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, of which 92.7 and 97.3 %, respectively, obtained the medication. Overall, 66.0 % of refugee and 75.9 % of host community households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (refugee mean US$30.4; host community mean US$56.0).
Care seeking was significantly lower among refugees than the host community. Out-of-pocket payments were considerable for both groups, the majority of which were for medication, and cost was the primary barrier to both care seeking and attaining medications.

Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

International Journal of Strategic Property Management
Volume 20, Issue 3, 2016
Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience
DOI: 10.3846/1648715X.2016.1185477
Luisa Giuliania*, Alexandra Revezb, Jorgen Sparfc, Suranga Jayasenad & Michael Havbro Fabera
pages 277-290
Large scale projects tasked with designing infrastructures and urban networks resilient to disasters face a common challenge, i.e. the need to address concomitant technological issues and social problems. What is more, conflicting technologies and the diverse philosophical underpinnings of distinct academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDRDD (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to optimize Educational development). More specifically, the project investigated the level of interdisciplinary work in current research and educational projects within the field of disaster resilience. findings illustrate the number and types of disciplines involved in disaster resilience projects and suggest that a higher degree of integration between different disciplines in tertiary education could promote a transdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience, resulting in design efficiency and innovation.

Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of populations affected by humanitarian emergencies: recent developments.

Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Post Author Corrections: July 18, 2016
doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000266
Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of populations affected by humanitarian emergencies: recent developments.
Murthy, Rangaswamy Srinivasa
Purpose of review: Understand recent developments in psychosocial and behavioral aspects of populations affected by humanitarian emergencies. The review covers the prevalence, longitudinal course, risk factors, posttraumatic growth, biological basis and interventions to address the needs.
Recent findings: Populations living in humanitarian emergencies, over 50 million worldwide, have higher risk of developing a range of mental disorders. There is evidence of persistence of these disturbances over long periods of time. There is growing body of knowledge to indicate the biological pathways to the occurrence of mental disorders. A proportion of population report posttraumatic growth. There is new focus on identifying the characteristics of risk factors, resilience at the individual, family, community and societal levels. Range of interventions to address the mental health needs is in use from strengthening the coping of individuals, parenting, school-based interventions and use of cognitive behavior therapy. Biological basis is becoming clear.
Summary: The most important message of the review is the high mental health needs of individuals living in emergency situations and the urgent need to work toward adequate preparedness for natural disasters, integrate psychosocial interventions as part of relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction and work toward preventing situations of conflict, war, migration and refugee situations.

Demand forecasting and order planning for humanitarian logistics: An empirical assessment

Journal of Operations Management
Available online 15 July 2016
In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users
Demand forecasting and order planning for humanitarian logistics: An empirical assessment
Erwin van der Laana, Jan van Dalena, Michael Rohrmosera, Rob Simpsonb
Humanitarian aid organizations are most known for their short-term emergency relief. While getting aid items to those in need can be challenging, long-term projects provide an opportunity for demand planning supported by forecasting methods. Based on standardized consumption data of the Operational Center Amsterdam of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF-OCA) regarding nineteen longer-term aid projects and over 2000 medical items consumed in 2013, we describe and analyze the forecasting and order planning process. We find that several internal and external factors influence forecast and order planning performance, be it indirectly through demand volatility and safety markup. Moreover, we identify opportunities for further improvement for MSF-OCA, and for humanitarian logistics organizations in general.

Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance

Journal of Environmental Management
Available online 18 July 2016
In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users
Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance
A Sundström
:: This article reviews the research on illegality and corruption in forest management.
:: The review provides theoretical reasoning why corruption increases illegal logging.
:: It examines previous empirical findings, cross-national as well as in-depth studies.
:: The review discusses the implications for conservation, including REDD+ programs.
:: It discusses how to improve monitoring of the forest sector in corrupt contexts.
This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a “door opener” for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research.

Advance directives in the provision of care for incarcerated adults: a scoping review protocol

JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
June 2016 – Volume 14 – Issue 6

Advance directives in the provision of care for incarcerated adults: a scoping review protocol
Hand, Mikel W.; Mitchell, Sheryl; DeGregory, Cristy
pp: 1-361
Scoping review question/objective: The objective of this review is to map the available evidence around advance directives in the care of incarcerated adults in terms of what has been undertaken, what outcomes have been reported, and what research gaps exist.

The specific areas of investigation will include:
:: Practices, policies or interventions used with incarcerated adults concerning advanced directives.
:: Prisoners’ experiences with advanced directives when receiving care.
:: Barriers to establishing and implementing advanced directives.
:: Healthcare providers’ experiences with implementing advanced directives while providing care.

The specific questions for this scoping review are:
:: What types of research related to advanced directives in the provision of care for incarcerated adults have been conducted and reported?
:: What research gaps exist in this area?

Center conducting the review: The Indiana Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice: a Collaborating Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute

Responding to Delayed Disclosure of Sexual Assault in Health Settings A Systematic Review

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
July 2016; 17 (3)

Responding to Delayed Disclosure of Sexual Assault in Health Settings A Systematic Review
Published online before print July 19, 2016, doi: 10.1177/1524838016659484
Stephanie Lanthier1,2, Janice Du Mont1,2, Robin Mason1,2
1Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Few adolescent and adult women seek out formal support services in the acute period (7 days or less) following a sexual assault. Instead, many women choose to disclose weeks, months, or even years later. This delayed disclosure may be challenging to support workers, including those in health-care settings, who lack the knowledge and skills to respond effectively. We conducted a systematic literature review of health-care providers’ responses to delayed disclosure by adolescent and adult female sexual assault survivors. Our primary objective was to determine how health-care providers can respond appropriately when presented with a delayed sexual assault disclosure in their practice. Arising out of this analysis, a secondary objective was to document recommendations from the articles for health-care providers on how to create an environment conducive to disclosing and support disclosure in their practice. These recommendations for providing an appropriate response and supporting disclosure are summarized.

Children’s Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism

Current Psychiatry Reports
September 2016, 18:79
Child and Family Disaster Psychiatry

First Online: 16 July 2016
Children’s Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism
DOI: 10.1007/s11920-016-0722-1
Jonathan S. Comer, Laura J. Bry, Bridget Poznanski, Alejandra M. Golik
Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

Between a Rock and a Hard place: a Trauma-Informed Approach to Documenting the Traumatic Experiences of Tamil Refugees

Journal of Human Rights and Social Work
First Online: 13 July 2016
DOI: 10.1007/s41134-016-0013-0
Between a Rock and a Hard place: a Trauma-Informed Approach to Documenting the Traumatic Experiences of Tamil Refugees
Hilary N Weaver
Refugees and asylum seekers typically experience dislocation, persecution, and significant cultural adjustments, making them highly vulnerable populations that deserve more attention from helping professionals. As a profession grounded in human rights and committed to serving disenfranchised populations, social work is well situated to attend to the needs of refugees, asylum seekers, and other displaced populations. These populations often experience multiple forms of trauma from their own governments as well as from rebel forces. This project models a trauma-informed approach to research using an assessment tool tailored to the South Asian Tamil population. Data are presented on the traumatic experiences and related sequelae for 30 Tamils living in the USA and Canada. The majority experienced multiple traumatic events including lack of food or clean water, being displaced, lack of shelter, ill health without access to medical care, murder of a family member or someone known, being detained, and beatings. Most respondents reported dwelling on their traumatic experiences, feeling as though they were happening again, feeling hopeless, recurrent bad dreams, and having less interest in daily activities. The data presented here can inform helping professionals about the lived experiences of this population. Considerations for helping professionals working with this population are included.

The Sentinel

Human Rights Action :: Humanitarian Response :: Health :: Education :: Heritage Stewardship ::
Sustainable Development
Week ending 16 July 2016

This weekly digest is intended to aggregate and distill key content from a broad spectrum of practice domains and organization types including key agencies/IGOs, NGOs, governments, academic and research institutions, consortia and collaborations, foundations, and commercial organizations. We also monitor a spectrum of peer-reviewed journals and general media channels. The Sentinel’s geographic scope is global/regional but selected country-level content is included. We recognize that this spectrum/scope yields an indicative and not an exhaustive product. Comments and suggestions should be directed to:

David R. Curry
Editor &
Founding Managing Director
GE2P2 Global Foundation – Center for Governance, Evidence, Ethics, Policy, Practice

pdf version: The Sentinel_ week ending 16 July 2016

:: Week in Review
:: Key Agency/IGO/Governments Watch – Selected Updates from 30+ entities
:: INGO/Consortia/Joint Initiatives Watch – Media Releases, Major Initiatives, Research
:: Foundation/Major Donor Watch -Selected Updates
:: Journal Watch – Key articles and abstracts from 100+ peer-reviewed journals

:: Journal Watch [to 16 July 2016]

:: Journal Watch
The Sentinel will track key peer-reviewed journals which address a broad range of interests in human rights, humanitarian response, health and development. It is not intended to be exhaustive. We will add to those monitored below as we encounter relevant content and upon recommendation from readers. We selectively provide full text of abstracts and other content but note that successful access to some of the articles and other content may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher. Please suggest additional journals you feel warrant coverage.

BMC Health Services Research (Accessed 16 July 2016)

BMC Health Services Research
(Accessed 16 July 2016)

Research article
Do informal caregivers for elderly in the community use support measures? A qualitative study in five European countries
Informal caregivers are essential figures for maintaining frail elderly at home. Providing informal care can affect the informal caregivers’ physical and psychological health and labour market participation ca…
Evi Willemse, Sibyl Anthierens, Maria Isabel Farfan-Portet, Olivier Schmitz, Jean Macq, Hilde Bastiaens, Tinne Dilles and Roy Remmen
BMC Health Services Research 2016 16:270
Published on: 16 July 2016


Research article
Effective health care for older people living and dying in care homes: a realist review
Care home residents in England have variable access to health care services. There is currently no coherent policy or consensus about the best arrangements to meet these needs. The purpose of this review was t…
Claire Goodman, Tom Dening, Adam L. Gordon, Susan L. Davies, Julienne Meyer, Finbarr C. Martin, John R. F. Gladman, Clive Bowman, Christina Victor, Melanie Handley, Heather Gage, Steve Iliffe and Maria Zubair
BMC Health Services Research 2016 16:269
Published on: 16 July 2016


Research article
Can Sierra Leone maintain the equitable delivery of their Free Health Care Initiative? The case for more contextualised interventions: results of a cross-sectional survey
In 2010, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone launched their Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) for pregnant and lactating mothers and children under-5. Despite an increase in the update of se…
Frédérique Vallières, Emma Louise Cassidy, Eilish McAuliffe, Brynne Gilmore, Allieu S. Bangura and Joseph Musa
BMC Health Services Research 2016 16:258
Published on: 13 July 2016