Partners In Health [to 25 April 2015]

Partners In Health [to 25 April 2015]

Apr 22, 2015
What Does It Mean to Heal and Be Healed? #WeHeal

Apr 20, 2015
Haiti: Training a New Generation of Family Physicians
When it launched in 2011, the St. Marc family medicine residency was PIH’s first formal training program for medical specialists in Haiti, made possible through a partnership with sister organization Zanmi Lasante, Haiti’s national medical school, and the Ministry of Health. The first six residents finished their three-year program in December; and five are now working part- or full-time as attending physicians or mentors for residents within the PIH/ZL network. Another 16 family medicine residents are now training at St. Marc’s Hôpital St. Nicolas.

Plan International [to 25 April 2015]

Plan International [to 25 April 2015]

Mediterranean crossings: Urgent action required to protect children
…Plan International is extremely concerned about the safety and wellbeing of refugee and migrant children who are making these dangerous crossings, some of them unaccompanied. Children are dying and more will die unless world leaders take action, now…..

SOS-Kinderdorf International [to 25 April 2015]

SOS-Kinderdorf International [to 25 April 2015]

SOS Children’s Villages: Europe must work to protect child migrants
23.04.2015 – After the latest loss at sea of hundreds of desperate adults and children attempting to migrate to Europe, SOS Children’s Villages International asks European governments to act together to prevent further such tragedies and protect child migrants.

Global Fund [to 25 April 2015]

Global Fund [to 25 April 2015]
24 April 2015
Gavi and the Global Fund Welcome Malaria Vaccine Trial Results

22 April 2015
Net Campaign Targets Universal Coverage in Niger

20 April 2015
Global Fund Launches Online Platform for Strategy Development
GENEVA – The Global Fund partnership has launched a consultation as part of a process to engage a wide range of stakeholders in developing its 2017-2021 strategy.
Through a web platform launched today, the Global Fund seeks to involve a broad spectrum of participants from government, civil society, people affected by the diseases, multilaterals, private sector and other interested parties to collectively shape the future of the partnership through contributing to the making of the new strategy.

The e-Forum 2015 will invite participants to discuss and share their thinking on diverse thematic areas that the Global Fund works in while highlighting how the partnership should prepare itself for changing dynamics in global health. The e-Forum will be a multilingual platform and will be hosted on the website .
Through the forum participants will have an opportunity to shape the future of the Global Fund partnership with its mission of ending AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics, while building resilient health systems and community responses.

The e-Forum is one strand in a broad consultative process which will also include Global Fund convened meetings across three continents – Africa, Asia and Latin America. Partners will gather in these venues to explore ways of guiding the Global Fund partnership to achieve much greater impact. There will be additional consultation opportunities alongside meetings hosted by WHO, UNAIDS, PMNCH and the StopTB Partnership…

ODI [to 25 April 2015]

ODI [to 25 April 2015]

Press Releases
Shale gas could make China’s growth cleaner, but concerns exist over level of political ambition to phase out coal and meet environmental standards – new report
News | 21 April 2015
A new report published today by the Overseas Development Institute finds shale gas could help green China’s economic growth, reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and air pollution, if used to phase-out coal and aggressively expand renewables…

Can fracking green China’s growth?
Research reports and studies | April 2015 | Ilmi Granoff; Sam Pickard; Julian Doczi; Roger Calow; Zhenbo Hou; Vanessa D’Alançon
This paper analyses whether shale gas, and by implication other unconventional sources, can materially improve the quality and sustainability of China’s economic growth.

The role of index-based triggers in social protection shock response
Research reports and studies | April 2015 | Francesca Bastagli and Luke Harman
Index-based trigger mechanisms are an innovative instrument used to help ensure timely and adequate social protection response in the event of a shock. This report identifies the potential advantages and limitations of the inclusion of index-based triggers in social…

Do organisational and political models for development cooperation matter for development effectiveness?
Working and discussion papers | April 2015 | Raphaelle Faure, Cathal Long, Annalisa Prizzon
This paper sets out to investigate the relationship between different institutional and political models for development cooperation and aid quantity and quality indicators.

The development agency of the future. Fit for protracted crises?
Working and discussion papers | April 2015 | Christina Bennett
This report identifies the numerous conceptual, architectural and political divides that prevent effective linkages between humanitarian and development aid.

The road to reform: Women’s political voice in Morocco
Research reports and studies | April 2015 | Clare Castillejo and Helen Tilley
Morocco’s active and effective women’s movement has acquired a progressively greater presence for women in formal politics and the wider civil society. This report explores how excluded and adversely incorporated groups can achieve greater political voice and how this…

The data revolution: finding the missing millions
Research reports and studies | April 2015 | Elizabeth Stuart, Emma Samman, William Avis and Tom Berliner
This report argues that an absence of data is impeding development progress, particularly for the poorest and most marginalised. It sets out the challenges and provides suggested solutions that will allow a data revolution to take place and improve the lives of many of…

Start Network [to 25 April 2015]

Start Network [to 25 April 2015]
[Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies]
Start for Change 2015: Building new humanitarian solutions together
April 23, 2015
Posted by Tegan Rogers in News.
The Start Network’s Annual Conference, entitled Start for Change 2015: Building new humanitarian solutions together will take place on 20 May 2015. Our Annual Conference is a unique opportunity for a broad range of staff from our member agencies to meet with other Start Network stakeholders from within and beyond the humanitarian sector, to debate and vote on the future of the collaboration…

BMGF (Gates Foundation) [to 25 April 2015]

BMGF (Gates Foundation) [to 25 April 2015]
Emilio Emini Director of HIV
SEATTLE (April 6, 2015) — The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation today announced that Emilio Emini, Ph.D, has been named director of HIV for the Global Health program. He will assume his new position on July 6, 2015.

Dr. Emini is currently the Chief Scientific Officer and Senior Vice President of Vaccine Research at Pfizer Inc. He is also a senior advisor to the Gates Foundation’s HIV team. Previously, Dr. Emini served as Senior Vice President and Head of Vaccine Development at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. He was also the founding Executive Director of Merck’s Department of Antiviral Research and the Vice President of Merck’s Vaccine and Biologics Research…

MacArthur Foundation [to 25 April 2015]

MacArthur Foundation [to 25 April 2015]
April 23, 2015 – Research and Results
Report Examines Nuclear Security and Disarmament Link
Foreign Policy Institute Fellow Deepti Choubey examines how nuclear-armed and non-nuclear-weapon states view the relationship between preventing nuclear terrorism and reducing and eliminating nuclear weapons.

April 23, 2015 – Research and Results
Assessing Views on Open Government Data
Americans are generally optimistic that government initiatives to use open data can make government more accountable, but they are less confident that open data will improve government performance, according to a national survey.

April 19, 2015 – Research and Results
Considering Ethics and Neuroscience in the Justice System
The report addresses the intersection of neuroscience and the legal system and cites 16 works by members of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience.

Ebola Crisis of 2014: Are Current Strategies Enough to Meet the Long-Run Challenges Ahead?

American Journal of Public Health
Volume 105, Issue 5 (May 2015)

Ebola Crisis of 2014: Are Current Strategies Enough to Meet the Long-Run Challenges Ahead?
Gilbert Gimm, PhD, and Len M. Nichols, PhD
The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in 2014 mobilized international efforts to contain a global health crisis. The emergence of the deadly virus in the United States and Europe among health care workers intensified fears of a worldwide epidemic. Market incentives for pharmaceutical firms to allocate their research and development resources toward Ebola treatments were weak because the limited number of EVD cases were previously confined to rural areas of West Africa. We discuss 3 policy recommendations to address the long-term challenges of EVD in an interconnected world.

HIV service delivery models towards ‘Zero AIDS-related Deaths’: a collaborative case study of 6 Asia and Pacific countries

BMC Health Services Research
(Accessed 25 April 2015)

Research article
HIV service delivery models towards ‘Zero AIDS-related Deaths’: a collaborative case study of 6 Asia and Pacific countries
Masami Fujita, Krishna C Poudel, Kimberly Green, Teodora Wi, Iyanthi Abeyewickreme, Massimo Ghidinelli, Masaya Kato, Mean Vun, Seng Sopheap, Khin San, Phavady Bollen, Krishna Rai, Atul Dahal, Durga Bhandari, Peniel Boas, Jessica Yaipupu, Petchsri Sirinirund, Pairoj Saonuam, Bui Duong, Do Nhan, Nguyen Thu, Masamine Jimba BMC Health Services Research 2015, 15:176 (24 April 2015)
Abstract (provisional)
In the Asia-Pacific region, limited systematic assessment has been conducted on HIV service delivery models. Applying an analytical framework of the continuum of prevention and care, this study aimed to assess HIV service deliveries in six Asia and Pacific countries from the perspective of service availability, linking approaches and performance monitoring for maximizing HIV case detection and retention.
Each country formed a review team that provided published and unpublished information from the national HIV program. Four types of continuum were examined: (i) service linkages between key population outreach and HIV diagnosis (vertical-community continuum); (ii) chronic care provision across HIV diagnosis and treatment (chronological continuum); (iii) linkages between HIV and other health services (horizontal continuum); and (iv) comprehensive care sites coordinating care provision (hub and heart of continuum).
Regarding the vertical-community continuum, all districts had voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in all countries except for Myanmar and Vietnam. In these two countries, limited VCT availability was a constraint for referring key populations reached. All countries monitored HIV testing coverage among key populations. Concerning the chronological continuum, the proportion of districts/townships having antiretroviral treatment (ART) was less than 70% except in Thailand, posing a barrier for accessing pre-ART/ART care. Mechanisms for providing chronic care and monitoring retention were less developed for VCT/pre-ART process compared to ART process in all countries. On the horizontal continuum, the availability of HIV testing for tuberculosis patients and pregnant women was limited and there were sub-optimal linkages between tuberculosis, antenatal care and HIV services except for Cambodia and Thailand. These two countries indicated higher HIV testing coverage than other countries. Regarding hub and heart of continuum, all countries had comprehensive care sites with different degrees of community involvement.
The analytical framework was useful to identify similarities and considerable variations in service availability and linking approaches across the countries. The study findings would help each country critically adapt and adopt global recommendations on HIV service decentralization, linkages and integration. Especially, the findings would inform cross-fertilization among the countries and national HIV program reviews to determine county-specific measures for maximizing HIV case detection and retention.

Determinants of women’s satisfaction with maternal health care: a review of literature from developing countries

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
(Accessed 25 April 2015)

Research article
Determinants of women’s satisfaction with maternal health care: a review of literature from developing countries
Aradhana Srivastava, Bilal I Avan, Preety Rajbangshi, Sanghita Bhattacharyya BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015, 15:97 (18 April 2015)
Abstract (provisional)
Developing countries account for 99 percent of maternal deaths annually. While increasing service availability and maintaining acceptable quality standards, it is important to assess maternal satisfaction with care in order to make it more responsive and culturally acceptable, ultimately leading to enhanced utilization and improved outcomes. At a time when global efforts to reduce maternal mortality have been stepped up, maternal satisfaction and its determinants also need to be addressed by developing country governments. This review seeks to identify determinants of women’s satisfaction with maternity care in developing countries.
The review followed the methodology of systematic reviews. Public health and social science databases were searched. English articles covering antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum care, for either home or institutional deliveries, reporting maternal satisfaction from developing countries (World Bank list) were included, with no year limit. Out of 154 shortlisted abstracts, 54 were included and 100 excluded. Studies were extracted onto structured formats and analyzed using the narrative synthesis approach.
Determinants of maternal satisfaction covered all dimensions of care across structure, process and outcome. Structural elements included good physical environment, cleanliness, and availability of adequate human resources, medicines and supplies. Process determinants included interpersonal behavior, privacy, promptness, cognitive care, perceived provider competency and emotional support. Outcome related determinants were health status of the mother and newborn. Access, cost, socio-economic status and reproductive history also influenced perceived maternal satisfaction. Process of care dominated the determinants of maternal satisfaction in developing countries. Interpersonal behavior was the most widely reported determinant, with the largest body of evidence generated around provider behavior in terms of courtesy and non-abuse. Other aspects of interpersonal behavior included therapeutic communication, staff confidence and competence and encouragement to laboring women.
Quality improvement efforts in developing countries could focus on strengthening the process of care. Special attention is needed to improve interpersonal behavior, as evidence from the review points to the importance women attach to being treated respectfully, irrespective of socio-cultural or economic context. Further research on maternal satisfaction is required on home deliveries and relative strength of various determinants in influencing maternal satisfaction.

Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya

BMC Public Health
(Accessed 25 April 2015)

Research article
Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya
Florence K M¿Kaibi, Nelia P Steyn, Sophie Ochola, Lisanne Du Plessis BMC Public Health 2015, 15:422 (25 April 2015)
Abstract (provisional)
Kenya has a high prevalence of underweight and stunting in children. It is believed that both agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rainfall influences household food security and dietary intake. In the present study we aimed to study the effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rains on dietary adequacy and household food security of preschool Kenyan children, and to identify significant relationships between these variables.
Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken in resource-poor households in rural Kenya approximately 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers to collect data from randomly selected households (N = 525). A repeated 24-hour recall was used to calculate dietary intake in each phase while household food security was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). A nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was calculated for each nutrient as the percent of the nutrient meeting the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for that nutrient. A mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated as the mean of the NARs. Agricultural biodiversity was calculated for each household by counting the number of different crops and animals eaten either from domestic sources or from the wild.
Dietary intake was low with the majority of households not meeting the RNIs for many nutrients. However intake of energy (p < 0.001), protein (p < 0.01), iron (p < 0.01), zinc (p < 0.05), calcium (p < 0.05), and folate (p < 0.01) improved significantly from the dry to the rainy season. Household food security also increased significantly (p < 0.001) from the dry (13.1 SD 6.91) to the rainy season (10.9 SD 7.42). Agricultural biodiversity was low with a total of 26 items; 23 domesticated and 3 from the natural habitat. Agricultural biodiversity was positively and significantly related to all NARs (Spearman, p < 0.05) and MAR (Spearman, p < 0.001) indicating a significant positive relationship between agricultural biodiversity of the household with dietary adequacy of the child’s diet.
Important significant relationships were found in this study: between agricultural biodiversity and dietary adequacy; between agricultural biodiversity and household food security and between dietary adequacy and household food security. Furthermore, the effect of seasonality on household food security and nutrient intake was illustrated.

Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa

Epidemiology and Infection
Volume 143 – Issue 07 – May 2015

Vaccine studies
Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa
Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13•8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (≥50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

Food Policy – Volume 53, In Progress (May 2015)

Food Policy
Volume 53, In Progress (May 2015)

Weather shocks and cropland decisions in rural Mozambique
Review Article
Pages 9-21
César Salazar-Espinoza, Sam Jones, Finn Tarp
:: We examine the effect of weather shocks on cropland decisions in rural Mozambique.
:: Farmers shift land use away from non-staple crops one year after a weather shock.
:: The uncultivated land share also rises after a weather shock.
:: Farmers living in higher drought risk areas appear more responsive to flood shocks.
:: The reallocation identified appears temporary as farmers devote less land to staples after two periods.

What drives and constrains effective leadership in tackling child undernutrition? Findings from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India and Kenya
Original Research Article
Pages 33-45
Nicholas Nisbett, Elise Wach, Lawrence Haddad, Shams El Arifeen
:: Interviews with 89 leaders in four countries shed light on the incentives and constraints to effective leadership.
:: Understanding leadership entails studying the adaptive practice of leaders rather than their personalities.
:: Leaders studied operate within fluid boundaries set by local political-economies of nutrition.
:: Successful leaders (high adult development levels) are able to span boundaries and translate between disciplines and sectors.
:: Supportive action can develop leadership attributes in individuals and their networks in a number of ways identified here.

Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal

Health Research Policy and Systems
[Accessed 25 April 2015]

Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal
Sandy Oliver, Mukdarut Bangpan, Claire Stansfield, Ruth Stewart
Health Research Policy and Systems 2015, 13:23 (26 April 2015)
Abstract (provisional)
Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews.
A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally.
International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for systematic reviews and to strengthen links between producers and potential users of systematic reviews.
Limited capacity for conducting systematic reviews within LMICs presents a major technical and social challenge to advancing their health systems. Effective capacity in LMICs can be spread through investing effort at multiple levels simultaneously, supported by countries (predominantly high-income countries) with established skills and experience.

Assessing the implementation and influence of policies that support research and innovation systems for health: the cases of Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania

Health Research Policy and Systems
[Accessed 25 April 2015]
Assessing the implementation and influence of policies that support research and innovation systems for health: the cases of Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania
Julius Mugwagwa, Daniel Edwards, Sylvia de Haan Health Research Policy and Systems 2015, 13:21 (18 April 2015)
Without good policies it will be difficult to provide guidance to research and innovation systems. However, policies need to be followed through and implemented to have the desired effect. We studied the policies and strategies in place to support research and innovation systems for health in Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania, and looked at the extent to which these policies and strategies have been implemented.
We reviewed documents and reports and conducted in-depth interviews with 16 key informants representing various actors of the national research for health systems.
The results illustrate that there are various policies and strategies governing research and innovation for health in the three countries. However, implementation of these policies and strategies is generally rated as being poor. The reasons highlighted for this include lack of policy coherence, lack of enforcement and accountability mechanisms, and a lack of financing for implementing the policies. These contextual factors seem to be of such importance that even the increased stakeholder involvement and political leadership, as mentioned by the interviewees, cannot guarantee policy implementation.
We conclude that due to the contextual realities of the study countries, there is need for greater focus on policy implementation than on developing additional policies. Government institutions should play a central role in all stages of the policy process, and should ensure implementation of defined policies. Strong mechanisms, including financing, that strengthen the position and role of government in policy coordination and the oversight of the policy process will help increase efficient and impactful implementation of research and innovation for health policies.